Outcomes for depression and anxiety in primary care and details of treatment: a naturalistic longitudinal study
© Prins et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 27 July 2011
Accepted: 18 November 2011
Published: 18 November 2011
There is little evidence as to whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice results in better clinical outcomes for people with anxiety and depression. This study aims to determine possible associations between guideline concordant care and clinical outcomes in general practice patients with depression and anxiety, and identify patient and treatment characteristics associated with clinical improvement.
This study forms part of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).
Adult patients, recruited in general practice (67 GPs), were interviewed to assess DSM-IV diagnoses during baseline assessment of NESDA, and also completed questionnaires measuring symptom severity, received care, socio-demographic variables and social support both at baseline and 12 months later. The definition of guideline adherence was based on an algorithm on care received. Information on guideline adherence was obtained from GP medical records.
721 patients with a current (6-month recency) anxiety or depressive disorder participated. While patients who received guideline concordant care (N = 281) suffered from more severe symptoms than patients who received non-guideline concordant care (N = 440), both groups showed equal improvement in their depressive or anxiety symptoms after 12 months. Patients who (still) had moderate or severe symptoms at follow-up, were more often unemployed, had smaller personal networks and more severe depressive symptoms at baseline than patients with mild symptoms at follow-up. The particular type of treatment followed made no difference to clinical outcomes.
The added value of guideline concordant care could not be demonstrated in this study. Symptom severity, employment status, social support and comorbidity of anxiety and depression all play a role in poor clinical outcomes.
Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders which cause considerable emotional and physical suffering, often resulting in severe disability [1–5]. Primary care settings have become the principal site for treating depressive and anxiety disorders [3, 6] and quality of care for anxiety and depression seems to be moderate or poor [7–10].
Over the past decade, many evidence-based guidelines have been developed . However, little is known about the effects of their application on clinical care outcomes . Implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines has been advocated as a way of improving detection and treatment of common mental disorders and reducing variations in health care . Guidelines specify low and high intensity psychological and pharmacological interventions with proven effectiveness. A stepped care approach (preference for the least restrictive and least costly interventions) has been advocated. Collaborative care (integration of generalist and specialist care) is a critical element in the latest versions . In the Netherlands, the Dutch College of General Practitioners (DCGP) issued evidence-based general practice guidelines for depression and anxiety [15, 16], which are widely accepted and play a prominent role in continuing professional development programmes for medical practitioners. These guidelines follow the international accepted state of the art and are comparable with British  and American  guidelines.
There is some evidence that guideline concordant treatment is positively associated with improvements in patients with depressive  and anxiety disorders . However, randomised controlled trials designed to improve outcomes for anxiety and depression in primary care, by structured implementation of evidence-based guidelines, show mixed results . In addition, systematic reviews report little effect of guideline implementation [12, 22]. The Hampshire Depression Project, a major trial on implementing guideline concordant care, could not show improvements in diagnosis of or recovery from depression . Croudace et al.  did not find an effect of guideline implementation on detection and outcome for mental disorders either. However, these studies did not analyse patient characteristics regarding their possible benefit from guideline concordant care. Furthermore, no distinction was made between the various types of care (psychological interventions, pharmacological interventions or referral).
Although clinical severity and treatment adequacy play a role in symptomatic improvement and full recovery from a depressive episode, recovery also seems to be influenced by social support, education level, age, (un)employment and non-depressive psychopathology [25–29]. For anxiety disorders, a good outcome was predicted by mild symptoms, high education level and being employed, as well as male gender and later onset [25, 30, 31], while comorbidity with major depression worsened clinical outcomes in a 12-year study .
Therefore, whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice will improve clinical outcomes in anxiety and depression patients with specific characteristics or with specific interventions has yet to be demonstrated. Consequently, the following questions will be addressed:
1) Do primary care patients with a current anxiety or depressive disorder, who received guideline concordant care, show greater clinical improvement after one year than patients who did not receive care in accordance with the guidelines?
2) Which patient characteristics are associated with particular clinical outcomes after one year?
3) Which interventions are associated with particular clinical outcomes after one year?
Setting and recruitment
Data were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, http://www.nesda.nl). NESDA is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study designed to measure the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders . For this study, primary care data were used.
During baseline assessment, all patients were interviewed and completed questionnaires to collect detailed socio-demographic data including age, gender, education level (3 levels), employment status, income, marital and partnership status, and personal network size. The CIDI interview, WHO Lifetime Version 2.1 was conducted which identified 743 patients who met DSM-IV criteria  for a current depressive (Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), dysthymia) or anxiety disorder (generalised anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia). Since 22 patients refused to give informed consent for the use of their EMR, ultimately 721 patients were included in this study.
One year after inclusion, each participant received a questionnaire containing the most important self-report instruments (measuring severity of depression and anxiety, see below) to determine the course of anxiety and depression symptoms.
Actual GP care: guideline concordant care versus non-guideline concordant care
Information on the delivery of care given to patients with a current anxiety or depression diagnosis (as measured by the CIDI) was gathered from GPs' EMRs. Data were extracted from the year prior to inclusion in the NESDA study to one year after inclusion. The following data were collected for each patient included in the study,: number and type of contacts, International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes , prescribed medication (type and dose), duration of prescription, and referrals. Our earlier NESDA paper  described the degree to which GPs adhered to the evidence-based DCGP clinical depression and anxiety guidelines in the delivery of care for their anxiety and depression patients [15, 16]. Based on the care they had received, patients were divided into two groups, i.e. patients who had received 1) guideline concordant care, or 2) non-guideline concordant care. The algorithm for guideline concordant care is:
› PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT including at least five consultations in the 15 weeks following documentation of diagnosis
› COUNSELLING (only applicable to GP depression care)
› PRESCRIPTION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICATION including evaluation after six weeks of prescription and minimal duration of five months or cessation in case of no response
› REFERRAL TO MENTAL HEALTH SPECIALIST
Patients fulfilling one of the criteria (receiving psychological support, counselling, AD-medication or referral, according to the specifications given above) are considered to have received guideline concordant care. 50% of patients with depression and anxiety disorders received guideline concordant care, mainly counselling, medication or referral. 42% of patients with depression only received guideline concordant care, mainly in the form of counselling or referral. Only 27% of patients with anxiety disorders only received guideline concordant care, mainly in the form of referral.
This algorithm is necessarily a simplified version of treatment recommendations described in various guidelines. It only takes account of whether a treatment is in place, without including the content of the interventions or the conditions under which treatment occurs. This is due to lack of data e.g. regarding severity of symptoms during GP contact or treatments already tried in the past.
Patients fell into the non-guideline concordant care group if they did not fulfil any of the abovementioned criteria (i.e. if they did not receive counselling, sufficient pharmacological treatment or referral).
Clinical outcome measures
Clinical status was measured by the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptoms self-report (IDS-SR), which measures the severity of depressive symptoms, and has shown highly acceptable psychometric properties , as well as the 21-item Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), measuring anxiety symptoms . Total scores of the IDS-SR and BAI could range from 0 to 84 and 0 to 63 respectively, where high scores indicate more (severe) symptoms. These clinical outcome measures were measured at the baseline assessment of NESDA (T0) and at one year follow-up (T1).
First, χ2 and t-test for independent samples were used to compare patient characteristics of those who received guideline concordant care with those who received non-guideline concordant care.
Secondly, using MLwiN software, a multilevel repeated measures analysis was undertaken to test whether improvements in symptom severity were statistically significantly different between follow-up and baseline. Since data were grouped (clustered) by GPs and practices, a random intercept was included in the model to adjust for possible differences resulting from this clustering. All values were corrected for age, gender, education level and baseline severity score. The multilevel model takes all available data into account (the paired samples that had completed the questionnaires on both occasions, as well as the unpaired data of those patients who only completed the questionnaires at baseline). For the outcome measures on baseline and follow-up, adjusted means and standard errors were calculated for both treatment groups. To compare differences in trends from baseline to follow-up between the two care groups, differences in means were tested using Wald statistics (df = 1). Trends were considered significant if Chi-square was > 3.85 (P < .05).
Thirdly, multilevel regression analyses were performed to model associations between socio-demographic characteristics, severity scores at baseline and specific types of treatment (counselling/psychological support, antidepressants, referral), with clinical severity at follow-up as the outcome variable. Fixed and random parameter estimates and their standard errors (SE) were calculated.
Finally, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to model associations between different patient characteristics and (still) having moderate or severe anxiety or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Socio-demographic characteristics were entered, followed by social support variables and type of diagnosis. In the last step, severity symptoms at baseline were added to the model.
The NESDA study was approved centrally by the Ethics Review Board of the VU University Medical Center and by local review boards of the participating institutes. Following the provision of verbal and written information on the study, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Patient characteristics: guideline concordant care versus non-guideline concordant care
Comparisons of patients who received Guideline concordant care and Non-guideline concordant care at baseline (T0)
Guideline concordant care, N = 281
Non-guideline concordant care, N = 440
Female gender (%)
Age in years, mean (SD)
Married/living together (%)
Education level (%)
Type of diagnosis (%)
Anxiety disorder(s) only
Depressive disorder(s) only
Comorbidity of both depressive and anxiety disorders
Clinical outcome measures T0, mean (SD)
Severity of depressive symptoms (IDS-SR)
Severity of anxiety symptoms (BAI)
At follow-up, 139 patients (19%) had been lost as a result of attrition. Compared with non-completers, completers were older (45.7 vs. 41.5), more highly educated, and reported less severe anxiety (15.2 vs. 20.5) and depression (26.6 vs. 30.9) symptoms.
Clinical outcome and guideline adherence
Differences in severity of depressive symptoms in patients with depression (N = 423) who received guideline concordant care (GCC) versus non-guideline concordant care (NGCC) at baseline (T0) and after 12 months (T1)
IDS score, mean
Differences in severity of anxiety symptoms in patients with anxiety (N = 573) who received guideline concordant care (GCC) versus non-guideline concordant care (NGCC) at baseline (T0) and after 12 months (T1)
BAI score, mean
Associations with socio-demographics and type of treatment
Multilevel regression analysis on severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively at T1 by patient characteristics and type of treatment received in patients with depressive (N = 322) and anxiety disorders (N = 457)
Patients with depressive disorder(s)
Severity of depressive symptoms at T0
Basic education levelb
Intermediate education levelb
Antidepressants received for ≥ 5 months
Referred to a mental health specialist
Patients with anxiety disorder(s)
Severity of anxiety symptoms at T0
Basic education levelb
Intermediate education levelb
Psychological support received
Antidepressants received for ≥ 5 months
Referred to a mental health specialist
Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively at T1 (dependent variables) was significantly associated with severity score at baseline and with intermediate (versus high) education level both for patients with depressive disorders and patients with anxiety disorders. In patients with depressive disorders, higher age was also positively associated. No significant associations between any of the different care forms, for either depression or anxiety, and clinical outcomes at T1 were found.
Patient characteristics and course of anxiety and depression
Multilevel logistic regression analysis on (still) having moderate or severe depressive or anxiety symptoms at T1 (versus having low anxiety and depressive symptoms at T1)
OR (95%- CI)
OR (95%- CI)
OR (95%- CI)
OR (95%- CI)
Basic education levelb
Intermediate education levelb
Income above modal (>2400 euro per month)c
Social support variables
Having a partner
Type of diagnosis
Anxiety disorder(s) onlyd
Depressive disorder(s) onlyd
Severity of symptoms at T0
Summary of main findings
In this study we determined the possible associations between guideline concordant care and clinical outcomes in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders and identified patient and treatment characteristics associated with better or worse outcomes. Patients who were not treated in accordance with the general practice guidelines improved on their anxiety and depressive symptoms just as much as patients who were treated in accordance with those guidelines. While patients with comorbidity of both anxiety and depressive disorders, those with smaller personal networks and the unemployed were more likely to suffer from moderate or severe symptoms after 12 months. Severity of depressive symptoms at baseline was most strongly associated with severity after one year. In the case of depression, older patients and patients with an intermediate education level (as opposed to a high education level) had more severe symptoms after a year. In the case of anxiety, only education level was associated with severity. Different kinds of treatment did not result in different outcomes.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The large sample size and the use of a prospective design in the collection of data to assess guideline adherence constitute the strong points of this study. The primary care sample of NESDA is representative to other GP attendees in the Netherlands and data for the same patient group were gathered at baseline and at the 12 month follow-up, which facilitated longitudinal comparisons. Furthermore, our data could be considered representative for "real life" treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care.
However, the naturalistic design of the study constitutes a major limitation. Participants could not be randomised and baseline scores differed markedly between the treatment groups. Even though estimated means were corrected for scores at baseline, it is still difficult to determine whether non-guideline concordant care is just as effective as care in accordance with the guidelines, or that differences between the predefined subgroups interfered with our results. Only a randomised controlled trial can directly test and compare the effectiveness of strategies that make care more guideline concordant. Finally, our classification into guideline concordant and non-guideline concordant care was based on available EMR data, which means that the quality of registration could have influenced our independent variables.
The study was conducted in the Netherlands, which constitutes a limitation because the (mental) health care system in the Netherlands differs in some respects from those in other countries. The position of the GP in the Dutch health care system is rather prominent, because he acts as gatekeeper to the more specialised sectors of health care. Access to psychiatric services or other specialised mental health services is not possible without referral by a GP. In this respect, the situation is more or less comparable to the UK or Denmark, but far less so to the USA, for example.
Comparison with existing literature
It seems that patients with the most severe anxiety or depression symptoms have the highest chance of being diagnosed and treated by their GP. This has also been found in previous studies ([25, 41–44]and ).
Severity of symptoms was strongly associated with poorer clinical outcome after one year, a finding which has also emerged in other studies [25, 46, 47]. We did not find significant associations between guideline adherence and prognosis, as was the case in , although Simon et al  reported a significant reduction in symptoms among recognised cases compared with non-recognised cases after 3 months, a difference that had disappeared after 12 months.
Based on the literature, one would expect better diagnosis combined with worse prognosis for more severe depression. A 10-year follow-up study found that even though treatment for depressed primary care patients was 'inadequate by psychiatric standards', the majority of the patients had a favourable outcome without recurrences . There may be good reasons why GPs deviate from the guidelines, and patients get better regardless of whether their treatment is in accordance with clinical guidelines.
Regarding patient characteristics, in line with earlier studies [25, 29], we also found that people who are more highly educated and in work are more likely to have a better outcome than people who are lower educated and unemployed. We can also confirm associations of clinical outcome with social support [27, 29] and comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders  found in previous studies.
Guideline concordant care is provided by general practitioners for more severe cases of depression and anxiety. Less severe cases improve just as much without guideline concordant care. In discussions on the introduction of DSM-V, some experts have argued that mental disorders in general and depression in particular have been defined too broadly. Lichtenberg and Belmaker  made an intuition based proposal for classifying types of depression heuristically, which is adopted by Bech , who distinguished primary depression (melancholia) from depression that is secondary to stress and depression that is secondary to medical conditions (post-natal depression, post-stroke depression, substance abuse disorder). Primary depression and depression secondary to medical conditions show good dose-response reactions to medication, which is less clear in the case of depression secondary to stress. It is possible that GPs are more sensitive to the first and miss the latter, from which there is a better spontaneous recovery. This might explain our results.
Implications for future research or clinical practice
Our findings have some practical implications, as well as implications for future research. GPs tend to follow clinical guidelines more closely when managing depression and anxiety when patients have more severe symptoms. However, GPs could give more attention to lower educated patients with a small personal network, and to those who are unemployed. Finally, since patients who do not receive guideline concordant care seem to improve just as much as those who received guideline concordant care, further research is needed to establish the precise reason for this. A possible line of research might be a further elaboration of the distinction between primary depression to which the guidelines should be applied, and stress induced depression and anxiety, to which a more detached attitude might be desirable.
The authors would like to thank Stasja Draisma for her help with data collection and preparation. The authors are also grateful to all participating GPs and patients and the members of the NESDA primary care team.
The infrastructure for the NESDA study (http://www.nesda.nl) is funded through the Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (Zon-Mw, grant number 10-000-1002) and is supported by participating universities and mental health care organisations (VU University Medical Center, GGZ inGeest, Arkin, Leiden University Medical Center, GGZ Rivierduinen, University Medical Center Groningen, Lentis, GGZ Friesland, GGZ Drenthe, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare (IQ healthcare), Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) and Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos). Support for data-analyses for the present study was provided under a grant from the Health Care Efficiency Research Programme, subprogram implementation (grant number 945-14-413).
- Alonso J, Codony M, Kovess V, Angermeyer MC, Katz SJ, Haro JM, et al: Population level of unmet need for mental healthcare in Europe. Br J Psychiatry. 2007, 190: 299-306. 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.022004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andrews G, Henderson S: Unmet need in psychiatry. Problems, resources, responses. 2000, Cambridge: Cambridge University PressView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bijl RV, Ravelli A: Current and residual functional disability associated with psychopathology: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Psychol Med. 2000, 30: 657-668. 10.1017/S0033291799001841.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, et al: The epidemiology of major depressive disorder. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003, 289: 3095-3105. 10.1001/jama.289.23.3095.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bijl RV, Ravelli A: Psychiatric morbidity, service use, and need for care in the general population: results of the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study. Am J Public Health. 2000, 90: 602-607. 10.2105/AJPH.90.4.602.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wolf NJ, Hopko DR: Psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for depressed adults in primary care: a critical review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008, 28: 131-161. 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.04.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young AS, Klap R, Sherbourne CD, Wells KB: The quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001, 58: 55-61. 10.1001/archpsyc.58.1.55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stein MB, Sherbourne CD, Craske MG, Means-Christensen A, Bystritsky A, Katon W, et al: Quality of care for primary care patients with anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2004, 161: 2230-2237. 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.12.2230.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Os TW, van den Brink RH, van der Meer K, Ormel J: The care provided by general practitioners for persistent depression. Eur Psychiatry. 2006, 21: 87-92. 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2005.05.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mauskopf JA, Simon GE, Kalsekar A, Nimsch C, Dunayevich E, Cameron A: Nonresponse, partial response, and failure to achieve remission: humanistic and cost burden in major depressive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2008, 26 (1): 83-97.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grol R: Successes and failures in the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice. Med Care. 2001, 39 (Suppl 2): 46-54.Google Scholar
- Worrall G, Chaulk P, Freake D: The effects of clinical practice guidelines on patient outcomes in primary care: a systematic review. Can Med Assoc. 1997, 156: 1705-1712.Google Scholar
- Cornwall PL, Scott J: Which clinical practice guidelines for depression? An overview for busy practitioners. Br J Gen Pract. 2000, 50: 908-911.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH. [http://www.nccmh.org.uk/]
- Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap: NHG Standaard Depressieve stoornis (depressie) [Dutch college of general practitioners, Practical guideline Depressive disorder (depression)]. 2003, [Online]. [cited 2007 March 2], [http://nhg.artsennet.nl/kenniscentrum/k_richtlijnen/k_nhgstandaarden/Samenvattingskaartje-NHGStandaard/M44_svk.htm]Google Scholar
- Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap: NHG Standaard Angststoornis (angst) [Dutch college of general practitioners, Practical guideline Anxiety disorder]. 2004, [Online]. [cited 2007 March 2], [http://nhg.artsennet.nl/kenniscentrum/k_richtlijnen/k_nhgstandaarden/Samenvattingskaartje-NHGStandaard/M62_svk.htm]Google Scholar
- Burgers JS, Grol RPTM, Zaat JOM, Spies TH, van der Bij AK, Mokkink HGA: Characteristics of effective clinical guidelines for general practice. Br J Gen Practice. 2003, 53: 15-19.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. [http://psychiatryonline.org]
- Von Korff M, Goldberg D: Improving outcomes in depression: the whole process of care needs to be enhanced. BMJ. 2001, 323: 948-949. 10.1136/bmj.323.7319.948.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Boeijen CA, van Oppen P, van Balkom AJ, Visser S, Kempe PT, Blankenstein N, et al: Treatment of anxiety disorders in primary care practice: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2005, 55: 763-769.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Baldwin DS: Evidence-based guidelines for anxiety disorders: can they improve clinical outcomes?. CNS Spectr. 2006, 11: 34-39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gilbody S, Whitey P, Grimshaw J, Thomas R: Educational and organizational interventions to improve the management of depression in primary care. A systematic review. JAMA. 2003, 289: 3145-3151. 10.1001/jama.289.23.3145.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thompson C, Kinmonth A, Stevens L, Peveler RC, Stevens A, Ostler KJ, et al: Effects of a clinical-practice guideline and practice-based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire Depression Project randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000, 355: 185-191. 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)03171-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Croudace T, Evans J, Harrison G, Sharp DJ, Wilkinson E, McCann G, et al: Impact of the ICD-10 Primary Health Care (PHC) diagnostic and management guidelines for mental disroders on detection and outcome in primary care. Br J Psychiatry. 2003, 182: 20-30. 10.1192/bjp.182.1.20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ronalds C, Creed F, Stone K, Webb S, Tomenson B: Outcome of anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care. Br J Psychiatry. 1997, 171: 427-433. 10.1192/bjp.171.5.427.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown C, Schulberg HC, Prigerson HG: Factors associated with symptomatic improvement and recovery from major depression in primary care patients. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2000, 22: 242-250. 10.1016/S0163-8343(00)00086-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spijker J, de Graaf R, Bijl RV, Beekman AT, Ormel J, Nolen WA: Determinants of persistence of major depressive episodes in the general population. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). J Affect Disord. 2004, 81: 231-240. 10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Enns MW, Cox BJ: Psychosocial and clinical predictors of symptom persistence vs remission in major depressive disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 2005, 50: 769-777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gilchrist G, Gunn J: Observational studies of depression in primary care: what do we know?. BMC Fam Pract. 2007, 11: 8-28.Google Scholar
- Rubio G, López-Ibor JJ: Generalized anxiety disorder: a 40-year follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007, 115: 372-379. 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00896.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Francis JL, Weisberg RB, Dyck IR, Culpepper L, Smith K, Orlando Edelen M, et al: Characteristics and course of panic disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia in primary care patients. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2007, 9: 173-179. 10.4088/PCC.v09n0301.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bruce SE, Yonkers KA, Otto MW, Eisen JL, Weisberg RB, Pagano M, et al: Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder: a 12-year prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005, 162: 1179-1187. 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1179.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Penninx BWJH, Beekman AT, Smit JH, Zitman FG, Nolen WA, Spinhoven P, et al: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2008, 17: 121-140. 10.1002/mpr.256.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E, et al: Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003, 60: 184-189. 10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van der Veen WJ, van der Meer K, Penninx BW: Screening for depression and anxiety: analysis of cohort attrition using general practice data on psychopathology. Int J Methods Psych Res.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders. 2001, Washington, 4Google Scholar
- Lamberts H, Wood M: International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). 1990, Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
- Smolders M, Laurant M, Verhaak PFM, Prins MA, van Marwijk HWJ, Penninx BWJH, et al: Adherence to evidence-based guidelines for depression and anxiety disorders is associated with recording of the diagnosis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009, 31: 460-469. 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.05.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Basco MR, Jarrett RB, Trivedi MH: The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): psychometric properties. Psychol Med. 1996, 26: 477-486. 10.1017/S0033291700035558.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA: An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988, 56: 893-897.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wittchen HU: Generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, burden, and cost to society. Depress Anxiety. 2002, 16: 162-171. 10.1002/da.10065.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dowrick C, Buchan I: Twelve month outcome of depression in general practice: does detection or disclosure make a difference?. BMJ. 1995, 311: 1274-1276. 10.1136/bmj.311.7015.1274.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- 1998 Goldberg D, Privett M, Ust++n TB, Simon G, Linden M: The effects of detection and treatment of depression on the outcome of major depression in primary care: a naturalistic study in 15 cities. British Journal of General Practice. 1998, 48: 1840-1844.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hyde J, Evans J, Sharp D, Croudace T, Harrison G, Lewis G, et al: Deciding who gets treatment for depression and anxiety: a study of consecutive GP attenders. Br J Gen Pract. 2005, 55: 846-853.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Simon GE, Goldberg D, Tiemens BG, Ustun TB: Outcomes of recognized and unrecognized depression in an international primary care study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1999, 21: 97-105. 10.1016/S0163-8343(98)00072-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Licht-Strunk E, van Marwijk HWJ, Hoekstra T, Twisk JWR, de Haan M, Beekman ATF: Outcome of depression in later life in primary care: longitudinal cohort study with three years' follow-up. BMJ. 2009, 338: a3079-10.1136/bmj.a3079.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Spijker J, Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Nolen WA: Determinants of poor 1-year outcome of DSM-III-R major depression in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001, 103: 122-130. 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.103002122.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Weel-Baumgarten EM, van den Bosch WJ, Hekster YA, van den Hoogen HJ, Zitman FG: Treatment of depression related to recurrence: 10-year follow-up in general practice. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000, 25: 61-66. 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2000.00264.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lichtenberg P, Belmaker RH: Subtyping major depressive disorder. Psychother. Psychosom. 2010, 79: 131-135.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bech P: Struggle for subtypes im primary and secondary depression and their mode-specific treatment or healing. Psychother Psychosom. 2010, 79: 331-338. 10.1159/000320118.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/180/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.