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Table 1 Demographic Characteristics and Participants' Substance Use by Diagnostic Category

From: Gender-specific profiles of tobacco use among non-institutionalized people with serious mental illness

Characteristic All Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Mood or Anxiety Disorder1 Differences
  (N = 729) (n = 436) (n = 293)  
  (100%) (59.8%) (40.2%)  
  f % f % f % χ2(df), sig.2
Gender (n = 719)        8.0 (1), p = .005
   Male 351 48.8 228 53.3 123 42.3  
   Female 368 51.2 200 46.7 168 57.7  
Racialised Group (n = 680)        0.3 (1), p = .592
   No (e.g., white/European) 499 73.4 300 74.3 199 72.1  
   Yes (e.g., Aboriginal/Asian/South Asian/Black) 181 26.6 104 25.7 77 27.9  
Education (n = 723)        1.1 (1), p = .289
   Less than high school 170 23.5 108 25.0 62 21.3  
   High school or more 553 76.5 324 75.0 229 78.7  
Marital Status (n = 719)        18.9 (3), p = <.001
   Single and never married 453 63.0 289 67.5 164 56.4  
   Separated/Divorced 159 22.1 92 21.5 67 23.0  
   Married (spouse or common law partner) 79 11.0 30 7.0 49 16.8  
   Widowed 28 3.9 17 4.0 11 3.8  
Housing (n = 723)        28.5 (3), p <.0001
   Independent (private house or apartment) 513 71.0 279 64.6 234 80.4  
   Residential facility (licensed/boarding) 102 14.1 81 18.8 21 7.2  
   Semi-independent (subsidy/supportive care) 94 13.0 66 15.3 28 9.6  
   Shelter/hostel/no housing 14 1.9 6 1.4 8 2.7  
Living Arrangement (n = 724)        26.4 (3), p <.0001
   Lives alone 383 52.9 240 55.6 143 49.0  
   Lives with family 170 23.5 87 20.1 83 28.4  
   Group home resident 101 14.0 76 17.6 25 8.6  
   Lives with roommate/friend(s)/girlfriend/boyfriend 70 9.7 29 6.7 41 14.0  
Sources of Financial Support (multiple responses permitted, n = 714)        
   Disability benefits (yes v. no) 405 57.0 235 55.8 170 58.8 0.7 (1), p = .397
   Canada Pension Plan or other pension (yes v. no) 165 23.1 102 24.1 63 21.7 0.4 (1), p = .525
   Earned income/paid work (yes v. no) 167 23.4 89 21.0 78 26.9 3.0 (1), p = .082
   Social assistance/welfare (yes v. no) 119 16.7 87 20.5 32 11.0 10.5 (1), p = .001
   Family contribution (yes v. no) 110 15.4 58 13.7 52 17.9 2.1 (1), p = .150
Smoking Status (n = 729)        13.1 (2), p = .001
   Current 341 46.8 226 51.8 115 39.2  
   Former 156 21.4 91 20.9 65 22.2  
   Never 232 31.8 119 27.3 113 38.6  
Any Alcohol Intoxication (in past month) (n = 716)        2.9 (1), p = .088
   Yes 63 8.8 31 7.2 32 11.2  
   No 653 91.2 399 92.8 254 88.8  
Any Cocaine Use (in past month) (n = 716)        0.0 (1), p = 1.000
   Yes 28 3.9 17 4.0 11 3.8  
   No 688 96.1 412 96.0 276 96.2  
Any Cannabis Use (in past month) (n = 717)        2.3 (1), p = .128
   Yes 92 12.8 48 11.2 44 15.3  
   No 625 87.2 382 88.8 243 84.7  
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD t (df), sig.
Age (years) (n = 721) 47.4 12.1 47.8 12.4 46.9 11.9 1.0 (719), p = .336
Brief Symptom Inventory (n = 715)        
   Somatic symptoms 10.8 4.3 10.6 4.1 11.1 4.6 -1.6 (566.1), p = .1003
   Depression 12.0 5.4 11.5 4.9 12.8 6.0 -3.1 (522.4), p = .0023
   Anxiety 11.8 5.3 11.3 4.9 12.6 5.8 -3.2 (533.1), p = .0023
   Global Severity Index 34.7 13.2 33.4 12.1 36.6 14.5 -3.1 (533.6), p = .0023
  1. 1 Composed of participants with a mood disorder or an anxiety disorder (38.1% and 2.1% of the total sample, respectively).
  2. 2Continuity correction applied for crosstabulations with 1 degree of freedom.
  3. 3Levene's Test for Equality of Variances significant; thus, equal variances not assumed for t-tests.