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Table 2 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Assessed Groups; ADHD-prison group, ADHD-psychiatry group, Healthy controls. Not applicable = N/A.

From: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

  ADHD-prison, n = 30 ADHD-psychiatry, n = 20 Controls,
n = 18
F or
χ 2
p
Age, mean, (SD), y 34.4 (10.67) 33.4 (8.65) 35.2 (9.85) .14 .87e
Educational level, nine-year compulsory school or less, n (%) 25 (83) 6 (30) 1 (6) 39.28 < .001e
ADHD, combined, n (%) 28 (93) 18 (90) N/A   
ADHD, inattentive, n (%) 2 (7) 2 (10) N/A   
≥ 1 current co-morbid disorder, n (%) a 15 (50) 12 (60) N/A   .569
Autism spectrum disorder b 7 (23) N/A N/A   
Mood and anxiety disorder, lifetime a 22 (73) N/A N/A   
Personality disorders, (N = 23) c      
   Antisocial, n (%) 22 (96) N/A N/A   
   Borderline, n (%) 17 (74) N/A N/A   
   Paranoid, n (%) 17 (74) N/A N/A   
   Narcissistic, n (%) 15 (65) N/A N/A   
   Obsessive-Compulsive, n (%) 12 (52) N/A N/A   
   Passive-Aggressive, n (%) 11 (48) N/A N/A   
   Avoidant, n (%) 11 (48) N/A N/A   
   Depressive, n (%) 8 (35) N/A N/A   
   Dependent, n (%) 7 (30) N/A N/A   
   Schizotypal, n (%) 5 (22) N/A N/A   
   Schizoid, n (%) 2 (9) N/A N/A   
   Histrionic, n (%) 0 (0) N/A N/A   
Substance use disorder, n (%) a 30 (100) N/A N/A   
   Amphetamine preferred, n (%) 19 (63) N/A N/A   
   Cocaine preferred, n (%) 4 (13) N/A N/A   
   Alcohol preferred, n (%) 4 (13) N/A N/A   
Psychopathy, n (%) d 3 (10) N/A N/A   
Concomitant psychotropic's, n (%) 13 (43) N/A N/A   
Onset of alcohol, mean (SD), y 11.9 (1.81) N/A N/A   
Onset of illegal drugs, mean (SD), y 14.0 (2.41) N/A N/A   
Onset of criminality, mean (SD), y 11.2 (3.40) N/A N/A   
Educational assistance at school, n (%) 24 (80) N/A N/A   
Child psychiatry/school health, n (%) 18 (60) N/A N/A   
ADHD diagnosed in childhood, n (%) 2 (7) N/A N/A   
  1. aAccording to DSM-IV by the SCID I interview, bAccording to DSM IV, Autism spectrum disorder includes both Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS, cFrequencies of personality disorders were estimated by increasing the cut-off level for each personality disorder by one score, on the SCID II PQ to equal the cut-off score of the SCID II interview, dPsychopathy was defined as a total sum score of ≥30 by the PCL-R, eAnalyses of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables.