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Table 4 unadjusted, partially adjusted and fully adjusted effect of antenatal and postnatal prevalent CMD on infant undernutrition at the age of six and twelve months in the P-MaMiE study

From: The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

Model Timing for main exposure Six month time point One year time point
   Underweight OR(95% CI) Stunting OR(95% CI) Underweight OR(95% CI) Stunting OR(95% CI)
Unadjusted      
  Antenatal 1.43(0.89,2.30) 0.91(0.56, 1.46) 1.34(0.84, 2.12) 1.13(0.76, 1.70)
  Postnatal 0.66(0.27, 1.61) 0.94(0.45, 1.97) 0.61(0.25, 1.47) 0.84(0.45, 1.58)
Adjusted for      
   Household characteristics      
  Antenatal 1.37(0.83, 2.27) 0.90(0.55, 1.47) 1.13(0.69, 1.84) 1.00(0.65, 1.52)
  Postnatal 0.76(0.31, 1.87) 0.93(0.44, 1.95) 0.63(0.26, 1.54) 0.88(0.46, 1.68)
   Maternal characteristics      
  Antenatal 1.50(0.91, 2.48) 0.84(0.50, 1.39) 1.17(0.71, 1.92) 1.10(0.72, 1.69)
  Postnatal 0.60(0.24, 1.47) 0.85(0.40, 1.80) 0.53(0.22, 1.29) 0.80(0.42, 1.52)
   Infant characteristics      
  Antenatal 1.50(0.92, 2.46) 0.96(0.59, 1.56) 1.33(0.82, 2.14) 1.18(0.78, 1.79)
  Postnatal 0.68(0.28, 1.65) 0.91(0.44, 1.91) 0.62(0.26, 1.49) 0.82(0.44, 1.55)
   Feeding practices      
  Antenatal 1.52(0.93, 2.49) 0.96(0.59, 1.57) 1.32(0.82, 2.13) 1.18(0.78, 1.78)
  Postnatal 0.67(0.28, 1.65) 0.92(0.44, 1.92) 0.61(0.25, 1.47) 0.81(0.43, 1.53)
Fully Adjusted      
  Antenatal 1.28(0.73, 2.24) 0.80(0.46, 1.38) 0.81(0.46, 1.43) 1.00(0.62, 1.60)
  Postnatal 0.56(0.22, 1.46) 0.66(0.30, 1.45) 0.52(0.21, 1.32) 0.80(0.40, 1.59)
Available Evidence from relevant Literature      
Rahman et al 2004 Antenatal 3.5(1.5, 8.6) 3.2(1.1, 9.9) 3.0(1.5, 6.0) 2.8(1.3, 6.1)
Adewuya et al 2008 Postnatal 4.21(1.34, 13.20) 3.34(1.18, 9.55) ------- -------
Adewuya et al 2008§ Postnatal 3.19(1.21, 8.40) 3.21(1.03 10.47) ----- -----
Patel et al 2003 ** Postnatal Varies between 2.5 and 3.5 Varies between 3.2 and 3.6 ------- -------
Rahman et al 2004** Postnatal -------- ------- 2.8(1.2, 6.8) -------
Anoop et al 2004*** Postnatal -------- ------- 3.1(0.9, 9.7) --------
Tomlinson et al 2006+ Postnatal 0.25(0.03, 2.09) 1.78(0.69, 4.63)   
Tomlinson et al 2006++ Postnatal    2.32(0.90, 6.00) 2.52(0.98, 6.47)
Tomlinson et al 2006+++ Postnatal    1.10(0.27, 4.46) 2.44(0.70, 8.58)
Harpman etal 2005 (ET) Postnatal    1.1(0.9, 1.3) 0.9(0.7, 1.1)
Harpman etal 2005 (PE) Postnatal    0.8(0.6, 1.1) 1.1(0.9, 1.4)
Harpman etal 2005 (VE) Postnatal    1.3(1.0, 1.7) 1.2(0.9, 1.7)
Harpman etal 2005 (IN) postnatal    1.1(0.9, 1.3) 1.4(1.2, 1.6)
Surkan et al 2008§§ postnatal    0.6(0.2, 1.7) 1.8(1.1, 2.8)
  1. * the models are not fully adjusted and hence no single estimate for adjusted odds ratio
  2. ** The result is for nine month rather than for 12 months of infant age
  3. *** The result is at a median infant age of 10.5 month rather than 12 months of age
  4. + unadjusted effect of concurrent CMD at two month time point
  5. ++ unadjusted effect of two month postnatal CMD on 18 month nutritional status
  6. +++ unadjusted effect of concurrent CMD at 18 month of age
  7. § unadjusted effect of postnatal CMD on three month nutritional status
  8. §§ Reported effects are on nutritional status of 6-24 year old children
  9. ET = Ethiopia; PE = Peru, VE = Vetnam; IN = India