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Table 2 Logistic regression models of the association between race/ethnicity, other individual characteristics, and potential suicide misclassification,* United States, 2003-2005

From: Race/ethnicity and potential suicide misclassification: window on a minority suicide paradox?

Characteristic Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  (n = 105,946) (n = 105,946) (n = 105,946) (n = 105,946)
Race/Ethnicity OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
White (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black 2.38 (2.25, 2.52) 2.26 (2.13,2.39) 2.28 (2.21, 2.36) 2.38 (2.22, 2.57)
Hispanic 1.08 (1.00, 1.16) 1.00 (0.93,1.08) 1.28 (1.24, 1.32) 1.17 (1.07, 1.28)
Gender     
male (referent)   1.00 1.00 1.00
female   2.36 (2.27,2.45) 2.29 (2.25, 2.34) 1.01 (0.97, 1.06)
Age (years)     
15-34 (referent)   1.00 1.00 1.00
35-54   1.40 (1.34,1.46) 1.37 (1.34, 1.40) 0.88 (0.84, 0.93)
55-74   0.61 (0.58,0.66) 0.85 (0.82, 0.87) 0.52 (0.49, 0.57)
75+   0.44 (0.40,0.48) 1.47 (1.42, 1.52) 0.51 (0.46, 0.57)
Education (years)     
0-8   1.82 (1.66,2.00) 1.82 (1.75, 1.90) 2.34 (2.10, 2.62)
9-12   1.51 (1.45,1.58) 1.43 (1.40, 1.46) 1.66 (1.58, 1.74)
13+ (referent)   1.00 1.00 1.00
unknown   1.84 (1.70,1.99) 1.37 (1.32, 1.43) 2.08 (1.89, 2.28)
Psychiatric Documentation     
yes (referent)    1.00 1.00
no    6.56 (6.16, 6.99) 3.12 (2.78, 3.51)
Mode of Injury     
more active (referent)     1.00
less active**     46.33 (43.32, 49.55)
  1. * Potential suicide misclassification was operationalized as a binary outcome measure of manner of death: undetermined intent (1) and suicide (0).
  2. ** Deaths classified under ICD-10 X60-69, X71, X75-77, X79, X81-84, Y10-19, Y21, Y25-27, Y29, and Y31-34. Residual injury deaths were classified as more active.