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Table 3 Relative risk of positive psychotic-like symptoms in relation to estimated dietary intake of fatty acids

From: Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population

Dietary intake g/day·MJ Positive psychotic-like symptoms a
Median Interquintile range Low level group Middle level group High level group
      Energy adjusted Multivariateb   Energy adjusted Multivariateb
Marine fatty acidsc No.   No. RR 95% CI RR 95% CI No. RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
0.016 (0.00-0.02) 4478 Ref. 3637      237     
0.030 (0.02-0.04) 4606   3587 0.94 0.89-1.00 0.97 d 0.91-1.03 177 0.71 0.58-0.87 0.75 d 0.61-0.92
0.050 (0.04-0.06) 4733   3538 0.91 0.86-0.97 0.96 d 0.90-1.02 176 0.69 0.57-0.85 0.76 d 0.61-0.93
0.070 (0.06-0.80) 4594   3633 1.00 0.94-1.06 1.05 d 0.98-1.13 227 0.96 0.80-1.16 1.05 d 0.85-1.29
Omega-6 fatty acids e
0.6 (0.1-0.7) 4408 Ref. 3712      261     
0.7 (0.6-0.8) 4709   3513 0.88 0.82-0.93 0.88 f 0.83-0.94 182 0.64 0.53-0.78 0.67 f 0.55-0.82
0.8 (0.7-0.8) 4670   3582 0.90 0.85-0.96 0.91 f 0.86-0.97 173 0.62 0.51-0.75 0.66 f 0.54-0.81
0.9 (0.9-2.1) 4624   3588 0.92 0.86-0.98 0.93 f 0.86-0.99 201 0.73 0.60-0.88 0.78 f 0.64-0.97
Omega-3 fatty acids g
0.14 (0.02-0.17) 4444 Ref. 3663      252     
0.18 (0.17-0.20) 4613   3628 0.95 0.89-1.01 0.98 b 0.92-1.04 175 0.66 0.54-0.81 0.73 h 0.60-0.89
0.21 (0.20-0.22) 4736   3512 0.90 0.84-0.96 0.95 b 0.89-1.01 176 0.66 0.53-0.80 0.76 h 0.62-0.94
0.26 (0.22-0.93) 4618   3592 0.96 0.90-1.02 1.02 b 0.95-1.09 214 0.83 0.69-1.00 1.00 h 0.82-1.23
  1. a Participants categorized into levels of psychotic-like symptoms; low, middle, high (see methods section)
  2. b In the multivariate analysis presented, we initially tested the effects of adjusting also for BMI, level of education, country of birth, smoking, dietary intake of meat, dairy products, fruits, cereals and refined sugar, rheumatoid arthritis, gluten intolerance, diabetes and multivitamin supplement. However, none of these covariates change the estimates substantially, and was therefore not included in the final multivariate model
  3. c Sum of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid
  4. d Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vitamin B12, alcohol and dietary intake of fat other than eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid
  5. e Sum of arachidonic and linoleic acids
  6. f Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vitamin B12, alcohol and dietary intake of other than omega-6 fatty acids
  7. g Sum of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid and α-linolenic acid
  8. hAdjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vitamin B12, alcohol and dietary intake of other than omega-3 fatty acids