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Table 2 Teacher outcome variables for intervention and control groups

From: Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

  Intervention group Control group Mean diff./OR for pre vs post by intervention interaction (95% CI) Mean diff./OR for pre vs follow-up by intervention interaction (95% CI)
  Pre Post Follow-up Pre Post Follow-up   
Mental Health Knowledge         
Knowledge quiz: mean (SD) 11.14 (3.57) 13.07 (3.30) 12.68 (3.44) 11.26 (3.07) 11.11 (3.58) 10.76 (3.89) 2.08 (1.38-2.78)*** 1.79 (1.06-2.52)***
Recognition of depression % 81.8 86.1 92.9 80.6 85.9 83.8 0.98 (0.27-3.56) 3.09 (0.77-12.43)
Beliefs about treatment for depression: mean (SD) 8.22 (2.39) 8.85 (2.54) 8.86 (2.39) 7.91 (2.44) 7.84 (2.74) 7.92 (2.46) 0.79 (0.23-1.34)** 0.73 (0.15-1.31)*
Personal Stigma Items: % Strongly Disagree         
Could snap out of it 32.1 40.1 37.3 31.1 29.6 26.4 2.12 (0.76-5.90) 2.59 (0.87-7.69)
Personal weakness 53.9 54.4 55.4 63.2 49.0 54.0 3.07 (1.16-8.14)* 2.47 (0.91-6.76)
Not real illness: % 45.0 47.1 48.7 43.4 37.8 34.5 1.70 (0.67-4.32) 2.50 (0.94-6.66)
People with that problem are dangerous 35.6 37.7 38.0 35.2 34.7 33.3 1.05 (0.39-2.82) 1.60 (0.57-4.45)
Best to avoid people with that problem 72.3 62.0 66.0 68.9 62.2 59.8 0.75 (0.30-1.89) 1.17 (0.45-3.03)
People with that problem are unpredictable 8.1 12.3 12.7 14.2 10.4 11.5 3.54 (0.88-14.17) 3.36 (0.82-13.83)
If they had problem they would not tell anyone 25.0 31.4 26.4 28.3 18.6 16.1 3.79 (1.34-10.71)* 3.42 (1.13-10.32)*
Perceived Stigma Items: % ≥ Agree         
Other people think could snap out of it 64.6 57.0 57.2 64.8 59.8 54.7 0.88 (0.34-2.26) 1.24 (0.47-3.33)
Other people believe a sign of personal weakness 52.7 52.9 56.0 58.5 56.7 45.9 1.10 (0.42-2.87) 3.01 (1.10-8.23)*
Other people believe not real illness 62.4 55.8 59.8 60.4 55.7 57.0 0.86 (0.37-2.02) 1.07 (0.44-2.60)
Other people believe they are dangerous 19.1 25.0 25.2 26.4 20.6 22.1 2.75 (0.98-7.66) 2.05 (0.72-5.85)
Other people would avoid people with that problem 23.6 29.7 28.9 27.4 23.7 24.4 2.42 (0.85-6.87) 1.90 (0.65-5.54)
Other people believe they are unpredictable 53.6 50.6 51.6 45.2 46.9 45.4 0.72 (0.31-1.68) 0.95 (0.40-2.28)
Other people would not tell anyone 61.4 59.1 51.6 67.6 51.6 52.9 2.57 (1.04-6.35)* 1.32 (0.52-3.36)
Intended Helping Behaviours Towards Students         
Contact the family: % ≥ often 38.2 41.8 44.0 36.2 37.5 35.3 1.28 (0.47-3.48) 1.46 (0.52-4.13)
Discuss with another teacher: % ≥ often 72.3 80.1 73.4 69.5 62.9 60.7 3.73 (1.31-10.62)* 2.46 (0.86-7.05)
Discuss with counsellors: % ≥ often 82.3 87.1 86.6 81.9 74.5 75.9 3.87 (1.21-12.41)* 2.98 (0.90-9.91)
Discuss with member of administration: % ≥ often 37.7 39.2 40.8 42.9 39.8 47.1 1.36 (0.52-3.60) 0.99 (0.37-2.68)
Have conversation with student: % ≥ often 68.6 72.5 70.3 61.0 58.2 49.4 2.06 (0.75-5.68) 3.16 (1.10-9.06)*
Talk with peers of student: % ≥ often 18.2 22.2 21.0 13.6 9.2 12.6 3.24 (0.91-11.54) 1.70 (0.49-5.94)
Do nothing: % never 65.5 66.1 66.5 69.5 65.0 61.6 1.95 (0.70-5.48) 2.37 (0.82-6.81)
Help Given Towards Students: % ≥ Occasionally         
Spoken with students about their mental health problems 52.1 52.1 54.8 53.3 51.0 47.7 1.34 (0.48-3.75) 1.73 (0.59-5.08)
Discussed a students' mental health problems with other teachers 67.9 72.4 66.2 70.5 68.4 58.1 1.87 (0.67-5.22) 1.91 (0.68-5.41)
Mental health issues raised in staff meetings 57.9 50.3 47.1 62.1 52.6 47.7 1.26 (0.51-3.07) 1.22 (0.48-3.08)
Confidence in Helping Students and Staff with Mental Health Problems: % ≥ Quite a Bit         
Confidence to talk with students about mental health problems 19.0 32.6 34.2 20.8 20.4 17.4 8.09 (1.89-34.63)** 7.02 (1.65-29.79)**
Confidence in helping a colleague with mental health problem 16.4 25.0 32.3 20.8 15.3 14.9 7.22 (1.84-28.4)** 11.65 (2.87-47.32)***
School Policies on Student Mental Health         
Review curriculum options/classroom practices: % ≥ often 54.3 56.7 58.0 59.1 48.5 41.9 2.22 (0.93-5.26) 3.76 (1.51-9.34)**
Review/changes school policy: % ≥ often 18.6 24.1 21.2 20.4 12.4 12.9 3.20 (1.12-9.14)* 2.44 (0.82-7.26)
Improve the relationships within the school: % ≥ often 65.6 69.4 68.2 71.4 61.2 58.1 3.09 (1.12-8.52)* 3.26 (1.14-9.27)*
School has written policy to deal with students with mental health problems: % yes 10.1 22.7 28.5 11.5 11.2 10.5 4.57 (1.28-16.26)* 7.28 (1.92-27.54)**
Policy been implemented in the last month: % ≥ occasionally 9.8 14.2 17.8 13.4 7.0 11.3 7.23 (0.85-61.37) 13.30 (1.32-133.44)*
Interacting with Colleagues: % ≥ Occasionally         
Talked with staff member about their mental health problem 39.1 38.0 38.3 38.4 38.1 36.1 0.88 (0.35-2.22) 0.93 (0.35-2.45)
Talk about own mental health problem with a staff member 35.8 39.4 38.2 37.1 34.7 34.5 1.49 (0.58-3.82) 1.23 (0.46-3.29)
Seeking Additional Mental Health Information: % ≥ Occasionally         
Visit any websites giving information about mental health 21.8 23.5 26.8 21.0 19.6 17.2 1.29 (0.42-3.91) 1.81 (0.56-5.79)
Read books or other written material bout mental health problems 43.9 49.1 39.9 38.1 38.8 35.6 1.30 (0.51-3.34) 0.85 (0.31-2.31)
Teacher Mental Health         
K6 6-24 (severe psychological distress) % 29.8 34.3 25.8 25.5 22.1 25.3 2.41 (0.77-7.49) 0.66 (0.20-2.13)
K6 3-24 (medium-high psychological distress) % 63.5 59.2 58.9 58.8 55.8 59.0 0.96 (0.34-2.70) 0.61 (0.20-1.85)
  1. Legend: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001