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Table 3 Student outcome variables for teacher intervention and control groups

From: Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

  Intervention group Control group Mean diff./OR for pre vs follow-up by intervention interaction (95% CI)
  Pre Follow-up Pre Follow-up  
Mental Health Knowledge      
Recognition of depression % 56.4 68.1 58.5 70.5 1.03 (0.67-1.59)
Beliefs and Intentions About Where to Seek Help for Depression      
Help-seeking intentions - any adult source from 11 bullet point items1: mean (SD) 3.79 (2.76) 3.77 (2.91) 3.67 (2.61) 3.61 (2.81) 0.01 (-0.30-0.32)
Help-seeking intentions - all 11 adult source bullet point items above: % yes 2.2 2.8 2.2 3.0 0.90 (0.31-2.58)
Help-seeking intentions (all 5 items)2: % yes 9.3 10.1 7.2 8.2 0.91 (0.49-1.70)
Help-seeking beliefs (all 5 items)3: % helpful 23.9 24.0 20.4 20.5 0.96 (0.61-1.52)
Personal Stigma: % Strongly Disagree      
Could snap out of it 12.5 16.5 13.9 19.9 0.84 (0.51-1.40)
Personal weakness 12.3 14.6 15.5 19.5 0.89 (0.51-1.56)
Not real illness 15.4 17.6 17.8 20.7 0.96 (0.60-1.55)
People with that problem are dangerous 12.9 12.8 16.4 13.9 1.25 (0.76-2.06)
Best to avoid people with that problem 34.7 33.6 36.4 38.1 0.85 (0.58-1.25)
People with that problem are unpredictable 3.9 3.5 3.1 4.3 0.59 (0.25-1.41)
If they had problem they would not tell anyone 21.9 19.8 27.4 22.7 1.26 (0.81-1.96)
Perceived Stigma: % ≥ Agree      
Other people think could snap out of it 47.9 46.0 43.5 41.3 1.00 (0.71-1.42)
Other people believe a sign of personal weakness 52.2 53.0 52.5 46.9 1.42 (0.99-2.04)
Other people believe not real illness 43.1 41.4 46.2 38.6 1.33 (0.95-1.86)
Other people believe they are dangerous 37.4 38.2 39.0 34.4 1.34 (0.94-1.90)
Other people would avoid people with that problem 37.4 38.4 39.0 37.7 1.13 (0.79-1.61)
Other people believe they are unpredictable 44.1 47.6 53.7 48.2 1.64 (1.15-2.33)**
Other people would not tell anyone 48.0 47.6 48.4 46.0 1.07 (0.76-1.51)
Help Received from Teacher      
Talked with staff member about mental health problem: % ≥ occasionally 5.2 6.7 2.4 4.2 0.67 (0.28-1.62)
Received information about mental health problems: % yes 19.0 25.2 19.7 13.0 2.60 (1.68-4.05)***
Student Mental Health      
SDQ 20-40 (abnormal) % 9.1 9.6 7.0 10.3 0.51 (0.25-1.05)
SDQ 16-40 (borderline-abnormal) % 21.9 21.1 16.8 19.9 0.58 (0.33-1.01)
SDQ Subscales      
Emotional symptoms 7-10 (abnormal) % 9.4 9.2 8.1 8.5 0.84 (0.42-1.70)
Conduct problems 5-10 (abnormal) % 9.6 9.0 7.8 9.2 0.68 (0.35-1.32)
Hyperactivity 7-10 (abnormal) % 16.2 16.2 14.7 15.8 0.90 (0.52-1.57)
Peer problems 6-10 (abnormal) % 4.5 4.1 3.7 4.6 0.55 (0.21-1.45)
Prosocial behaviour 0-4 (abnormal) % 10.8 10.5 10.3 9.0 1.09 (0.59-2.02)
  1. Legend: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. 1 The eleven intention items were nominating: a close family member, teacher, school/student counsellor, community member, pastoral care worker, community based religious leader, telephone helpline/counselling service, general practitioner or family doctor, child and adolescent mental health service, other mental health professionals (e.g., occupational therapist, social worker, nurse), and a youth health service.
  3. 2 The five intention items included nominating: a school/student counsellor, telephone helpline or counselling service, general practitioner or family doctor, child and adolescent mental health service, and other mental health professionals.
  4. 3 The five belief items were the same as above.