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Table 2 Univariate Prevalence and Unadjusted Odds Ratios of PTSD Following Deployment among United States Marine Corps Health Assessment Project Participants, by Demographic and Exposure Characteristics

From: Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Deployed US Male Marines

  Study population    PTSDa  
  N n % ORb (95% CI)b
Overall 706 76 10.8   
Baseline characteristics      
Age, years      
   17-20 553 58 10.5 1.00  
   21-31 153 18 11.8 1.14 (0.65-2.00)
Education      
   High school or less 528 60 11.4 1.00  
   More than high school 178 16 9.0 0.77 (0.43-1.38)
Race/ethnicity      
   White non-Hispanic 474 44 9.3 1.00  
   Hispanic 166 19 11.4 1.26 (0.72-2.23)
   Other 66 13 19.7 2.40 (1.21-4.74)
Adverse Childhood Experiences      
   0 353 33 9.3 1.00  
   1 244 24 9.8 1.05 (0.61-1.84)
   2-7 109 19 17.4 2.05 (1.11-3.77)
Prior Violence Exposures      
   0 407 31 7.6 1.00  
   1 179 24 13.4 1.88 (1.07-3.30)
   2-7 120 21 17.5 2.57 (1.42-4.67)
Potential problem drinking      
   No 62 6 9.7 1.00  
   Yes 644 70 10.9 0.88 (0.37-2.11)
Number of close friends/relatives      
   0-2 203 26 12.8 1.13 (0.64-1.98)
   3-4 261 30 11.5 1.00  
   5 or more 242 20 8.3 0.69 (0.38-1.26)
Follow-up and deployment characteristics      
Number of close friends/relatives      
   0-2 202 41 20.3 2.20 (1.27-3.82)
   3-4 222 23 10.4 1.00  
   5 or more 282 12 4.3 0.38 (0.19-0.79)
Enlisted pay grade      
   Junior enlisted (E1-E3) 334 48 14.4 2.08 (1.26-3.33)
   Noncommissioned officer (E4-E5) 372 28 7.5 1.00  
Number of deployments      
   1 433 34 7.9 1.00  
   2 273 42 15.4 2.13 (1.32-3.45)
Length of last deployment      
   1-120 days 211 29 13.7 1.00  
   121-240 days 441 42 9.5 0.66 (0.40-1.09)
   >240 days 54 5 9.3 0.64 (0.24-1.74)
Cumulative length of deploymentsc      
   31-120 days 136 12 8.8 1.00  
   121-240 days 308 29 9.4 1.07 (0.53-2.17)
   241-360 days 172 23 13.4 1.60 (0.76-3.33)
   >360 days 90 12 13.3 1.59 (0.68-3.72)
Gap timed      
   0 days 257 28 10.9 1.00  
   1-180 days 222 18 8.1 0.72 (0.39-1.34)
   >180 days 257 30 13.2 1.25 (0.72-2.16)
Discharged a weapon      
   No 386 21 5.4 1.00  
   Yes 320 55 17.2 3.61 (2.13-6.11)
Shot or seriously injured      
   No 665 61 9.2 1.00  
   Yes 41 15 36.6 5.71 (2.87-11.36)
Felt in great danger of being killed      
   Never/once/few times 399 17 4.3 1.00  
   Often/very often 307 59 19.2 5.35 (3.05-9.38)
Personally saw someone wounded, killed, or dead      
   No 248 9 3.6 1.00  
   Yes 458 67 14.6 4.55 (2.23-9.29)
Believed you were exposed to any chemical, biological, or radiological warfare agents      
   No/don't know 683 71 10.4 1.00  
   Yes 23 5 21.7 2.39 (0.86-6.65)
Entered or closely inspected destroyed military vehicles      
   No 320 21 6.6 1.00  
   Yes 386 55 14.2 2.37 (1.40-4.01)
Number of Combat Exposures Types      
   0 145 4 2.8 1.00  
   1-3 379 29 7.7 2.92 (1.01-8.48)
   4-6 182 43 2.4 10.90 (3.80-31.3)
  1. Note. PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder; OR, odds ratio; CI confidence interval; PCL-C, PTSD Patient Checklist-Civilian Version; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.
  2. aPosttraumatic stress disorder based on PTSD Patient Checklist-Civilian Version with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria and a sum of 50 points out of 85 points possible on the follow-up questionnaire.
  3. bUnadjusted odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals.
  4. cCumulative number of days deployed for all deployments that occurred between baseline and follow-up surveys.
  5. dDeployment occurred between baseline and follow-up in support of OEF/OIF operations.