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Table 1 Confirmatory factor analyses of the BDI-II: comparison of models by MLE method. N = 624

From: Dimensional and hierarchical models of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in an Arab college student sample

Models CMNI/DF1 GFI2 AGFI3 TLI: NNFI4 CFI5 PCFI6 RMSEA7 AIC8 Regression weights: P values Standardized regression weights
3-factor: Fig 1 2.11 0.94 0.93 0.89 0.90 0.79 0.042 481.7 All significant at
0.001, 2-tailed
For BDI 19: 0.14
Others: 0.27- 0.60. All covariance paths b/w factors: P <0.001
Higher order for 3-factor 2.28 0.94 0.92 0.87 0.89 0.79 0.045 514.1 All significant at 0.001, 2-tailed, except "concentration" (0.004) BDI 19 = 0.14
Others: 0.26-0.59
Bifactor for 3-factor 2.10 0.95 0.93 0.89 0.91 0.73 0.042 479.4 For general factor, all P < 0.001; for other factors, P >0.05 For general factor:
BDI 19 = 0.16
Others: 0.25-0.59
SA-C: Fig 2 2.16 0.94 0.93 0.88 0.89 0.80 0.043 492.7 All significant at
0.001, 2-tailed
BDI 19 = 0.14
Others: 0.27 -0.60
CA-S: Fig 3 2.3 0.94 0.92 0.88 0.89 0.79 0.045 510.4 All P <0.001, except 'concentration"
(0.002)
BDI 19 = 0.16
Others: 0.30-0.60
Higher order for SA-C and CA-S(Fig 4) 2.28 0.94 0.92 0.87 0.89 0.79 0.045 514.1 All P < 0.001, except concentration ( 0.14-0.59
Bifactor for SA-C 1.82 0.95 0.94 0.92 0.94 0.75 0.036 431.4 For general factor: P <0.001, except BDI 19 = 0.04. For other factors, mostly P > 0.05 General factor: BDI 19: 0.097
Others: 0.25-0.60
Bifactor for CA-S (Fig 5) 1.73 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.94 0.75 0.034 416.7 For general factor: P < 0.001, except BDI 19 = 0.02. For other factors, mostly P > 0.05 General factor: BDI 19: 0.14. Other items: 0.28-0.59
One-factor 2.28 0.94 0.92 0.87 0.89 0.79 0.045 514.1 All P < 0.001, except concentration (0.004) BDI 19 = 0.14
Others: 0.28-0.59
Bahrain* 2.17 0.94 0.93 0.88 0.89 0.79 0.043 494.4 All P <0.001, except 'concentration" (0.003) BDI 19 = 0.15
Others: 0.38-0.60. All covariance paths: P < 0.001
Dozois** 2.12 0.94 0.93 0.89 0.90 0.81 0.042 484.6 All P < 0.001, except 'concentration' (0.004) BDI 19 = 0.14
Others = 0.27 -0.61
Covariance paths: P < 0.001
  1. Notes: 1CMIN/DF = Chi-square divided degrees of freedom; 2GFI = "goodness-of-fit" index; 3AGFI = Adjusted GFI; 4TLI = Tucker -Lewis Index or Non-normed fit index; 5CFI = comparative fit index; 6PCFI = Parsimony adjusted comparative fit index; 7RMSEA = root mean square error of estimation; 8AIC = Akaike information criterion.
  2. Standard values for the above fit indices are: GFI, AGFI, CFI, TLI: > 0.9
  3. For others: PCFI > 0.6; CMIN/DF < 5; RMSEA < 0.08. In comparing models, the one with lesser AIC indicates better fit to the data.
  4. * BDI items: 4,8,10-13,17 constituted the "overt emotional upset" domain
  5. ** BDI items 1-3, 5-9 and 13-14 loaded on the "C-A" factor; while items 4,10-12 and 15-21 loaded on the somatic-vegetative factor