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Table 2 Potential risk factors of a poor outcome in anxiety at T1: multilevel univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

From: The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome: a one-year cohort study

  Univariate Multivariate
  β SE Variance at GP-level (SE) β SE Variance at GP-level (SE)
Predisposing characteristics       
Male gender -.97 .98 .08 (2.21) .20 .79  
Age       
   1. 18-35 ref    ref   
   2. 36-50 1.94 1.20   1.29 1.05  
   3. 51-65 1.56 1.15 .18 (2.23) 1.48 1.11  
Education       
   1. Basic ref    ref   
   2. Intermediate -2.87 1.59   -.08 1.31  
   3. High -6.09*** 1.68 1.57 (2.51) -1.59 1.43  
Born outside the Netherlands 2.25 1.42 .00 (.01) .60 1.14  
Marital status       
   Never married -.72 .99   .35 1.06  
   Currently married ref    ref   
   Formerly married -.11 1.25 .33 (2.29) -1.28 1.06  
Household composition - alone .37 .96 .08 (2.24) .09 .97  
Loneliness (range 0-10) .40** .12 .00 (.00) -.02 .10  
Social support (range 0-22) -.21* .09 .00 (.00) -.05 .07  
Enabling factors       
Income in euro's p.m.       
   < € 2.400,- ref    ref   
   > € 2.400,- -2.86** .92 .00 (.00) -1.48 .86  
Employment status - unemployed 3.49*** .91 .00 (.01) .42 .81  
Need factors       
Perceived need for care       
   1. No need for care - no perceived mental Problem -7.40*** 1.34   -1.78 1.23  
   2. No need for care - a perceived mental problem -3.47** 1.36   -.19 1.18  
   3. Need for care - unmet .40 1.09 .16 (2.11) .64 .93  
   4. Need for care - met ref    ref   
Recency       
   <6 months ref    ref   
   6 - 12 months 3.08 2.02   2.85 1.63  
   >12 months -1.08 .91 .00 (.00) -.04 .76  
Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder 4.31*** .87 .00 (.00) .16 .84  
Number of somatic diseases 1.30** .44 .01 (1.96) .57 .39  
Severity of anxiety T0 (BAI; range 0-63) .59*** .04 1.47(1.68) .54*** .04  
       1.54 (1.71)
  1. * p < .05 **p < .01 *** p < .001