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Table 3 Potential risk factors of a poor outcome in depression at T1: multilevel univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

From: The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome: a one-year cohort study

  Univariate Multivariate
  β SE Variance at GP-level (SE) β SE Variance at GP-level (SE)
Predisposing characteristics       
Male gender -.87 1.46 .00 (.00) -.61 1.17  
Age       
   1. 18-35 ref    ref   
   2. 36-50 1.08 1.74   -1.61 1.54  
   3. 51-65 4.44 1.70 .00 (.00) 2.07 1.64  
Education       
   1. Basic ref    ref   
   2. Intermediate -5.65* 2.53   -1.93 2.07  
   3. High -8.16** 2.63 .00 (.00) -3.23 2.24  
Born outside the Netherlands 4.30* 1.97 .00 (.00) 1.57 1.60  
Marital status       
   Never married -1.70 1.46   .08 1.59  
   Currently married ref    ref   
   Formerly married -.27 1.83 .00 (.00) -1.69 1.62  
Household composition - alone .11 1.38 .00 (.00) -.79 1.44  
Loneliness (range 0-10) .89*** .17 .00 (.00) .39* .16  
Social support (range 0-22) -.36** .14 1.11 (4.83) -.02 .12  
Enabling factors       
Income in euro's p.m.       
   < € 2.400,- ref    ref   
   > € 2.400,- -2.79* 1.38 .00 (.00) -1.16 1.31  
Employment status - unemployed 4.77*** 1.34 .00 (.00) .26 1.18  
Need factors       
Perceived need for care       
   1. No need for care - no perceived mental problem -8.00* 3.97   2.71 3.20  
   2. No need for care - a perceived mental problem -1.43 2.47   2.00 2.07  
   3. Need for care - unmet 3.05 1.62   1.55 1.31  
   4. Need for care - met ref   .00 (.00) ref   
Recurrent depressive disorder -1.52 1.32 .00 (.00) .79 1.07  
Recency       
   <6 months ref    ref   
   6 - 12 months 1.01 2.98   -.68 2.34  
   >12 months -1.54 1.46 .00 (.00) -.72 1.18  
Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder 8.23*** 1.29 .00 (.01) 2.95* 1.18  
Number of somatic diseases 1.78** .54 .00 (.00) .23 .49  
Severity of depression T0 (IDS; range 0-84) .63*** .05 3.16 (3.71) .53*** .05  
       2.59 (3.29)
  1. * p < .05 **p < .01 *** p < .001