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Table 2 Clinical course and functional outcome variables in the "excessive substance use" group versus the "no use" groups

From: Excessive substance use in bipolar disorder is associated with impaired functioning rather than clinical characteristics, a descriptive study

  Excessive substance No use Test statistics/p-value Effect sizes
  use group, N = 56 group, N = 69   
IDS-C, median (IQR) 16.5 (17) 13.5 (20) U = 1640.5, p = 0.853a  
YMRS, median (IQR) 2 (3) 2 (5) U = 1730.5, p = 0.393a  
PANSS general, mean (SD) 26.1 (5.9) 24.6 (6.0) t = -1.384, df = 122, p = 0.169d  
Age at onset of BD (years), median (IQR) 20 (9) 19 (10) U = 1894.0, p = 0.962a  
Duration of illness, median (IQR) 9.5 (12) 11.5 (16.75) U = 1739.0, p = 0.407a  
In remission, n (%) 19 (35) 31 (46) X2 = 1.515, p = 0.218b  
Time in remission, months, median (IQR) 3 (4) 5 (7.25) X2 = 2.511, p = 0.113c  
No. of elevated mood episodes, median (IQR) 3 (8.5) 2 (4) U = 1619.0, p = 0.288a  
No. of depressive episodes, median (IQR) 4 (9) 3 (8) U = 1716.0, p = 0.604a  
Bipolar disorder type, BD I, n (%) 30 (54) 41 (59) X2 = 0.431, p = 0.512b  
Psychosis, n (%) 20 (36) 32 (48) X2 = 1.604, p = 0.205b  
No. of suicide attempts, median (IQR) 0 (1) 0 (1) U = 600.0, p = 0.053a  
Hospitalized (lifetime), n (%) 35 (65) 45 (67) X2 = 0.074, p = 0.786b  
No. of admissions, median (IQR) 1 (2.8) 1 (3) U = 1814.0, p = 0.745a  
Duration of admissions (months), median (IQR) 1.5 (4.2) 3.3 (5) U = 568.0, p = 0.056a  
MARS score, median (IQR) 8 (5) 7 (3) U = 915.5, p = 0.010 a Diff. in mean rank = 15.17
Years of education, mean (SD) 13.5 (2.6) 15.1 (2.9) t = 3.307, df = 123, p = 0.001 d Cohen's d = 0.596
Currently employed/full time students, n (%) 12 (21) 31 (45) X2 = 7.564, p = 0.006 b Phi = -0.246
Marital status (married/living as married), n (%) 20 (36) 26 (38) X2 = 0.051, p = 0.821  
GAF S, mean (SD) 52.9 (10.7) 59.7 (11.1) t = 3.458, df = 123, p = 0.001 d Cohen's d = 0.624
GAF F, mean (SD) 50.3 (11.3) 57.2 (12.1) t = 3.112, df = 123, p = 0.002 d Cohen's d = 0.561
  1. IQR = interquartile range. aMann Whitney U-test, bChi-square test, cLog rank (Mantel Cox) test, dStudent's t-test.