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Table 1 Characteristics, lifestyle and antipsychotic treatment in total participants and four groups

From: Is antipsychotic polypharmacy associated with metabolic syndrome even after adjustment for lifestyle effects?: a cross-sectional study

  Total (n = 334) Normal (n = 158) visceral fat obesity (n = 41) pre-metabolic (n = 61) Metabolic (n = 74) p
Characteristics       
Age, mean (SD), y 44.2 (12.3) 43.5 (13.2) 42.4 (11.4) 43.4 (12.2) 47.2 (10.6) 0.11
Female, % (n) 42.8 (143) 62.7 (99) 22.0 (9) 21.3 (13) 29.7% (22) <0.01
GAF, mean (SD) 53.5 (15.3) 54.6 (15.0) 51.3 (15.5) 53.3 (15.6) 52.5 (15.6) 0.58
Family history, % (n) 48.8 (163) 48.7 (77) 48.8 (20) 44.3 (27) 52.7 (39) 0.81
Duration of psychiatric treatment, mean (SD), y 18.2 (12.1) 16.8 (12.2) 18.7 (11.8) 17.2 (11.3) 21.5 (12.1) 0.04
Lifestyle       
Snacks eating, % (n)       0.39
1 = never 12.9 (43) 13.3 (21) 9.8 (4) 13.1 (8) 13.5 (10)  
2 = rarely 26.9 (90) 28.5 (45) 24.4 (10) 27.9 (17) 24.3 (18)  
3 = sometimes 40.7 (136) 39.2 (62) 31.7 (13) 41.0 (25) 48.6 (36)  
4 = always 19.5 (65) 19.0 (30) 34.1 (14) 18.0 (11) 13.5 (10)  
Fatty foods, % (n)       0.18
1 = never 2.4 (8) 5.1 (8) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0)  
2 = rarely 21.6 (72) 23.4 (37) 17.1 (7) 23.0 (14) 18.9 (14)  
3 = sometimes 59.0 (197) 57.0 (90) 65.9 (27) 59.0 (36) 59.5 (44)  
4 = always 17.1 (57) 14.6 (23) 17.1 (7) 18.0 (11) 21.6 (16)  
High salt diet, % (n)       0.77
1 = never 4.5 (15) 3.2 (5) 1.6 (1) 1.6 (1) 10.8 (8)  
2 = rarely 20.1 (67) 22.2 (35) 19.5 (8) 19.7 (12) 16.2 (12)  
3 = sometimes 42.2 (141) 43.0 (68) 36.6 (15) 50.8 (31) 36.5 (27)  
4 = always 33.2 (111) 31.6 (50) 41.5 (17) 27.9 (17) 36.5 (27)  
Consumption of soft drink, % (n)       0.16
1 = never 11.1 (37) 13.3 (21) 9.8 (4) 11.5 (7) 6.8 (5)  
2 = rarely 21.6 (72) 26.6 (42) 29.3 (12) 9.8 (6) 16.2 (12)  
3 = sometimes 41.9 (140) 36.7 (58) 29.3 (12) 49.2 (30) 54.1 (40)  
4 = always 25.4 (85) 23.4 (37) 31.7 (13) 29.5 (18) 23.0 (17)  
Smoking habit, per day, % (n)       <0.01
1 = 21 or more 18.6 (62) 13.9 (22) 7.3 (3) 24.6 (15) 29.7 (22)  
2 = 6 to 20 21.6 (72) 17.7 (28) 26.8 (11) 24.6 (15) 24.3 (18)  
3 = 1 to 5 3.9 (13) 5.1 (8) 2.4 (1) 3.3 (2) 2.7 (2)  
4 = none 56.0 (187) 63.3 (100) 63.4 (26) 47.5 (29) 43.2 (32)  
Physical activity, mean (SD), Ex 22.4 (37.3) 21.0 (38.1) 17.9 (19.5) 30.0 (51.9) 21.7 (27.3) 0.34
Antipsychotic treatment       
Total daily dose, mean (SD), mg/d 596.6 (453.4) 510.3 (419.6) 769.2 (437.6) 668.4 (452.3) 626.2 (497.9) <0.01
Antipsychotics contraindicated for diabetes, % (n) 35.0 (117) 62.7 (99) 65.9 (27) 63.9 (39) 56.8 (42) 0.74
Antipsychotic polypharmacy, % (n) 50.0 (167) 40.5 (64) 61.0 (25) 63.9 (39) 52.7 (39) 0.01