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Table 1 Characteristics of overweight and obese study participants by major depressive symptoms or by moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score of ≥ 10), NHANES 2005-2006 *

From: Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

  n Major depressive symptoms Moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10)
   Yes No P-value Yes No P-value
N 2,439 68 2,371   152 2,287  
Age (year)     0.009    0.019
   20-< 40 746 19.7 (3.6) 32.5 (1.2)   24.3 (2.8) 32.6 (1.3)  
   40-< 60 886 69.3 (4.8) 43.4 (1.5)   57.0 (4.0) 43.3 (1.5)  
   ≥ 60 807 11.0 (4.4) 24.1 (2.1)   18.7 (3.9) 24.1 (2.1)  
Sex     < 0.001    0.007
   Men 1,325 30.9 (6.2) 54.3 (0.8)   40.8 (4.9) 54.5 (0.9)  
   Women 1,114 69.1 (6.2) 45.7 (0.8)   59.2 (4.9) 45.5 (0.9)  
Race‡     0.249    0.152
   NH white 1,215 69.0 (8.3) 73.2 (2.9)   68.1 (5.6) 73.4 (3.0)  
   NH black 589 17.5 (4.6) 11.5 (2.0)   16.7 (3.5) 11.4 (2.0)  
   Other 635 13.5 (5.2) 15.3 (1.9)   15.2 (4.1) 15.2 (2.0)  
Education     0.144    0.020
< high school
diploma
628 21.6 (5.3) 16.1 (1.6)   18.9 (3.3) 16.1 (1.6)  
high school
graduate
608 39.2 (7.6) 25.6 (1.1)   37.7 (4.2) 25.3 (1.1)  
> high school
diploma
1,203 39.2 (7.2) 58.2 (1.8)   43.4 (4.3) 58.6 (1.8)  
PIR§     < 0.001    < 0.001
   < 1 393 33.5 (5.9) 9.5 (0.7)   26.9 (2.5) 9.1 (0.7)  
   1-< 3 987 45.9 (7.8) 34.2 (2.1)   45.7 (4.9) 33.8 (2.1)  
   3-≤5 1,059 20.6 (6.9) 56.3 (2.3)   27.4 (4.0) 57.1 (2.3)  
BMI (kg/m2)     0.037    0.008
   25-< 30 1,202 33.0 (5.9) 49.1 (1.6)   34.0 (4.8) 49.6 (1.6)  
   ≥ 30 1,237 67.0 (5.9) 50.9 (1.6)   66.0 (4.8) 50.4 (1.6)  
No. of chronic conditions**     0.014    < 0.001
   0 966 20.6 (7.0) 42.3 (1.6)   23.2 (4.6) 42.8 (1.5)  
   1 621 27.8 (9.0) 26.8 (1.8)   23.9 (5.3) 27.0 (1.8)  
   2 401 26.0 (4.6) 16.0 (1.0)   20.1 (3.3) 16.0 (1.0)  
   ≥ 3 451 25.7 (6.6) 14.9 (1.4)   32.8 (3.2) 14.2 (1.4)  
Waist circumference (cm) 2,439 110.5 (2.2) 105.1 (0.5) 0.022 109.1 (1.7) 105.0 (0.5) 0.019
  1. *Data expressed as percentages with standard errors in parentheses for all categorical variables and expressed as means with standard errors for waist circumference. †Chi-Square test for categorical variables and Student t-test for continuous variables. ‡NH: non-Hispanic, §PIR: poverty-income ratio. ** Chronic conditions included hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic renal disease, and cancer.