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Table 2 Associations of major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese adults, NHANES 2005-2006 (N = 2,439)

From: Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

  Odds Ratio*
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Major depressive symptoms    
   Waist circumference† 1.03 (1.01-1.05) 1.03 (1.01-1.05) 1.03 (1.00-1.05)
Wald P-value 0.002 0.005 0.031
   Abdominal obesity‡    
yes 3.01 (2.00-4.55) 2.18 (1.35-3.59) 1.99 (1.18-3.38)
no 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wald P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.005
Moderate-to severe depressive symptoms
(PHQ score ≥ 10)
  
   Waist circumference† 1.02 (1.01-1.04) 1.02 (1.01-1.04) 1.02 (1.00-1.03)
Wald P-value 0.003 0.004 0.074
   Abdominal obesity‡    
yes 2.89 (1.70-4.91) 2.56 (1.34-4.90) 2.26 (1.15-4.44)
no 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wald P-value < 0.001 0.002 0.010
  1. *Model 1: unadjusted, Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, race, education, family poverty-income ratio, serum cotinine concentrations, physical activity and heavy alcohol drinking, Model 3: adjusted for the same set of variables as in Model 2 plus coexistence of the number of chronic conditions (including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer).
  2. †Used as continuous variable in the models
  3. ‡Used as categorical variable (defined as waist circumference > 108 cm for men and > 88 cm for women)