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Table 3 Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) of having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms by overweight/obese and by abdominal obesity among overweight and obese adults, NHANES 2005-2006 (N = 2,439)

From: Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

   N   Odds Ratio*  
    Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Major depressive symptoms     
   Overweight - abdominal obesity 615 1.00 1.00 1.00
  + abdominal obesity 587 2.38 (1.37-4.12) 1.77 (1.14-2.75) 1.67 (1.12-2.50)
   Obese - abdominal obesity 52 1.10 (0.11-11.12) 0.87 (0.09-8.09) 0.83 (0.09-7.70)
  + abdominal obesity 1,185 3.36 (1.99-5.66) 2.29 (1.24-4.23) 2.07 (1.03-4.14)
Wald P-value    < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Moderate-to severe depressive symptoms
(PHQ score ≥ 10)
  
   Overweight - abdominal obesity 615 1.00 1.00 1.00
  + abdominal obesity 587 2.41 (1.25-4.67) 2.18 (1.06-4.48) 2.03 (0.98-4.24)
   Obese - abdominal obesity 52 1.49 (0.28-7.80) 1.31 (0.26-6.52) 1.19 (0.23-6.00)
  + abdominal obesity 1,185 3.28 (1.91-5.65) 2.79 (1.42-5.48) 2.40 (1.18-4.86)
Wald P-value    < 0.001 0.014 0.062
  1. *Model 1: unadjusted, Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, race, education, family poverty-income ratio, serum cotinine concentrations, physical activity and heavy alcohol drinking, Model 3: adjusted for the same set of variables as in Model 2 plus coexistence of the number of chronic conditions (including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer).