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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

  Healthy Controls Bipolar Disorder Schizophrenia p-value
Number of subjects 40 32 32  
Men:Women 20:20 14:18 26:6 0.005
Twins:Non-twins 21:19 16:16 15:17 0.90
Caucasian:Non-caucasian 36:4 30:2 26:6 0.27
Age 35.8 (11.3) 41.4 (11.9) 35.5 (10.7) 0.09
Years of education 14.7 (2.7) 15.4 (2.8) 13.7 (2.6) 0.16
IQ 110.6 (13.4) 110.2 (12.5) 105.4 (11.1) 0.19
Disease duration   16.9 (12.3) 11.4 (7.3) 0.29
Performance in fMRI task     
   Errors, easy condition 3.5 (3.1) 4.5 (4.9) 5.2 (3.7) 0.20
   Errors, hard condition 6.8 (5.1) 6.3 (6.1) 8.5 (4.2) 0.22
  1. Mean values are presented with the standard deviation in parenthesis. Age and disease duration are presented in years. Performance during the fMRI verbal fluency task was matched for the groups, and the number of errors is presented for the easy and hard conditions of the task.