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Table 4 Modelling results for gender differential item functioning (male = 1, female = 2)

From: General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

  Estimate S.E. Est./S.E. p-value StdY
Three-factor MIMIC model with gender as covariate
Depression on sex 0.39 0.05 8.13 0.000 0.52
Worrying on sex 0.49 0.05 10.65 0.000 0.69
Somatic on sex 0.12 0.05 2.34 0.019 0.15
Three-factor MIMIC model with gender as covariate and direct effects for M_14 and M_25
Depression on sex 0.36 0.05 7.58 0.000 0.49
Worrying on sex 0.46 0.05 10.08 0.000 0.65
Somatic on sex 0.12 0.05 2.39 0.017 0.15
M_14 (I cried a lot) on sex 0.91 0.09 10.18 0.000 0.91
M_25 (looking ugly) on sex 0.55 0.06 8.81 0.000 0.55
Bifactor MIMIC model with gender as covariate
General on sex 0.32 0.04 7.39 0.000 0.47
Hopelessness-suicidal thoughts on sex 0.09 0.03 3.16 0.002 0.31
Generalized worrying on sex 0.15 0.03 5.03 0.000 0.59
Restlessness-fatigue on sex -0.12 0.03 -4.07 0.000 -0.42
Bifactor MIMIC model with gender as covariate and direct effects for M_14 and M_25
General on sex 0.28 0.04 6.42 0.000 0.41
Hopelessness-suicidal thoughts on sex 0.11 0.03 3.62 0.000 0.37
Generalized worrying on sex 0.18 0.03 5.62 0.000 0.70
Restlessness-fatigue on sex -0.09 0.03 3.62 0.000 -0.30
M_14 (I cried a lot) on sex 0.97 0.09 10.83 0.000 0.97
M_25 (looking ugly) on sex 0.65 0.06 10.47 0.000 0.65