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Table 1 Demographics of female foreign spouses in transnational marriages (n = 129)

From: Mental health of female foreign spouses in transnational marriages in southern Taiwan

  Vietnamese (n = 45) n (%) Chinese (n = 43) n (%) Indonesian (n = 41) n (%) chi-square p value
1. Age     29.41
   20-25 18 (40.0) 2 (4.7) 5 (12.8) 0.000
   26-30 17 (37.8) 10 (23.3) 14 (35.9)  
   31-35 4 (8.9) 18 (41.9) 10 (25.6)  
   > 36 6 (13.3) 13 (30.2) 10 (25.6)  
2. Time since immigration to Taiwan (years)     13.91
   < 5 23 (52.3) 10 (23.8) 7 (17.1) 0.001
   > 5 21 (47.7) 32 (76.2) 34 (82.9)  
3. Marital status     1.15
   Married 43 (95.6) 38 (90.5) 39 (95.1) 0.563
   Single 2 (4.4) 4 (9.5) 2 (4.9)  
4. Education level in Homeland     17.63
   < 6 years 17(37.8) 2(4.7) 14(34.1) 0.001
   6~9 years 17(37.8) 17 (39.5) 14 (34.1)  
   > 9 years 11(24.4) 24 (55.8) 13 (31.7)  
5. Attendance at Chinese literacy program in Taiwan     36.47
   None 19 (42.2) 37 (92.5) 12 (29.3) 0.000
   Literacy classes or supplement school 26 (57.8) 3 (7.5) 29 (70.7)  
6. Language ability before move to Taiwan     63.81
   Only mother tone 41 (91.1)   2 (4.9) 0.000
   Could speak Chinese, Haka or Taiwanese 4 (8.9)   39 (95.1)  
7. Taiwanese or Haka ability (listening and speaking)     26.70
   Very good 21 (48.4) 39 (92.9) 34 (82.9) 0.000
   Poor 19 (44.2) 3 (7.1) 4 (9.8)  
   Neither 3 (7.0) 0 (0) 3 (7.3)  
8. Mandarin ability (listening and speaking)     0.352a
   Very good 38 (86.4)   38 (92.7) 0.486
   Poor 4 (13.6)   3 (7.3)  
9. Religion     30.54
   None 7 (15.6) 21 (48.8) 0 (0.0) 0.000
   Yes 38 (84.4) 22 (51.2) 40 (100.0)  
10. Number of children     17.02
   None 2 (4.7) 5 (11.6) 4 (9.8) 0.002
   1 27 (62.8) 15 (34.9) 8 (19.5)  
   2 14 (32.6) 23 (53.5) 29 (70.7)  
11. Husband's age     4.82
   < 35 9 (20.0) 6 (14.3) 3 (7.7) 0.777
   35~39 10 (22.2) 9 (21.4) 8 (20.5)  
   40~44 13 (28.9) 9 (21.4) 10 (25.6)  
   45~49 9 (20.0) 11 (26.2) 12 (30.8)  
   > 50 4 (8.9) 7 (16.7) 6 (15.4)  
11. Husband's years of education     6.74
   Less than 6 years 3 (6.8) 0 (0) 4 (9.8) 0.150
   6~9 years 16 (36.4) 10 (23.8) 14 (34.1)  
   More than 9 years 25 (56.8) 32 (76.2) 23 (56.1)  
12. Household income/monthly (NT dollars)     7.44
20,000 15 (48.4) 11 (29.7) 8 (32.0) 0.115
   20,000-40,000 10 (32.3) 20 (54.1) 16 (64.0)  
   >40,000-70,000 6 (19.4) 6 (16.2) 1 (2.4)  
  1. a Fisher's exact test