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Table 1 Characteristics of clients with and without return to the criminal justice system during follow-up

From: Risk factors for criminal recidivism – a prospective follow-up study in prisoners with substance abuse

  Clients relapsing, n (%) Clients not relapsing, n (%)
  n = 2,862 n = 1,290
Demographic data
Mean age (yrs) 33.3 33.8
Male gender 2,607 (91) 1,133 (88)
Homelessness last 30 days 742 (26) 197 (15)
Lifetime history of psychiatric problems
Hospitalization 493 (17) 169 (13)
Suicide attempt 687 (24) 269 (21)
Depression 1,472 (51) 668 (52)
Anxiety 1,583 (55) 704 (55)
Cognitive problems 1,646 (58) 686 (53)
Hallucinations 413 (14) 162 (13)
Difficulty controlling violent behaviour 1,347 (47) 500 (39)
Lifetime history of substance use (>6 months)
Amphetamine, heroin and/or injection drug use
- none 604 (21) 499 (39)
- injecting, no heroin/amphetamine 77 (3) 34 (3)
- heroin use, no injecting 69 (2) 39 (3)
- heroin use, injecting 143 (5) 44 (3)
- amphetamine use, no injecting 430 (15) 249 (19)
- amphetamine, injecting 1,050 (37) 297 (23)
- heroin and amphetamine, no injecting 50 (2) 19 (1)
- heroin and amphetamine, injecting 439 (15) 109 (8)
Binge drinking 1,307 (46) 590 (46)
Other opioids than heroin/methadone 438 (15) 177 (14)
Sedatives 1,070 (37) 405 (31)
Cocaine 455 (16) 225 (17)
Cannabis 1,815 (63) 762 (59)
Hallucinogenic drugs 365 (13) 167 (13)
Number of substance types used last 30 days (0–6)
0 280 (10) 224 (17)
1 965 (34) 485 (38)
2 825 (29) 287 (22)
3 499 (17) 197 (15)
4 227 (8) 69 (5)
5 60 (2) 22 (2)
6 6 (0) 6 (0)
Mean number of substance types 1.87 1.61
Duration of index sentence (mean number of days)
−99 427 (15) 104 (8)
100-199 838 (29) 237 (18)
200-299 539 (19) 187 (14)
300-399 310 (11) 153 (12)
400-499 195 (7) 95 (7)
500-599 153 (5) 84 (7)
600-699 96 (3) 72 (6)
700-799 88 (3) 83 (6)
800-899 55 (2) 47 (4)
900-999 48 (2) 43 (3)
1000- 113 (4) 185 (14)
Mean duration of index sentence (days) 326 541
Main crime in index verdict
Violent crime 395 (14) 283 (22)
Property crime 976 (34) 256 (20)
Drug crime 814 (28) 501 (39)