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Table 2 Variables associated with return to the criminal justice system. Hierarchical Cox regression analysis

From: Risk factors for criminal recidivism – a prospective follow-up study in prisoners with substance abuse

  Model 1 Model 2
Age 0.99 (0.98-0.99) 0.99 (0.99-1.00)1
Male gender 1.59 (1.40-1.82) 1.56 (1.37-1.79)
Homelessness last 30 days 1.19 (1.09-1.29) 1.15 (1.05-1.25)
Lifetime history of psychiatric problems
Hospitalization 1.13 (1.02-1.25) 1.11 (1.00-1.23)1
Suicide attempt 0.98 (0.89-1.08) 0.97 (0.88-1.07)
Depression 0.94 (0.86-1.04) 0.95 (0.86-1.04)
Anxiety 0.98 (0.90-1.08) 0.99 (0.90-1.09)
Cognitive problems 1.06 (0.98-1.15) 1.05 (0.97-1.14)
Hallucinations 1.02 (0.92-1.14) 1.01 (0.90-1.13)
Difficulty controlling violent behaviour 1.19 (1.09-1.28) 1.21 (1.11-1.31)
Lifetime history of substance use (>6 months)
Amphetamine, heroin and/or injection drug use2
- injecting, no heroin/amphetamine 1.48 (1.17-1.88) 1.54 (1.21-1.95)
- heroin use, no injecting 1.44 (1.12-1.85) 1.44 (1.12-1.86)
- heroin use, injecting 1.88 (1.55-2.27) 1.84 (1.52-2.23)
- amphetamine use, no injecting 1.26 (1.11-1.44) 1.28 (1.13-1.45)
- amphetamine, injecting 1.99 (1.78-2.22) 1.95 (1.74-2.18)
- heroin and amphetamine, no injecting 1.41 (1.05-1.89) 1.43 (1.07-1.93)
- heroin and amphetamine, injecting 2.12 (1.84-2.44) 2.08 (1.81-2.40)
Binge drinking 0.90 (0.83-0.97) 0.89 (0.83-0.97)
Other opioids than heroin/methadone 0.86 (0.77-0.97) 0.85 (0.76-0.95)
Sedatives 0.98 (0.90-1.08) 0.98 (0.90-1.07)
Cocaine 1.01 (0.91-1.13) 1.01 (0.90-1.12)
Cannabis 0.93 (0.85-1.01) 0.93 (0.86-1.01)
Hallucinogenic drugs 0.84 (0.75-0.95) 0.86 (0.76-0.96)
Number of substance types used last 30 days 1.05 (1.01-1.09) 1.04 (1.00-1.08)1
Duration of index sentence 0.93 (0.91-0.94) 0.93 (0.92-0.95)
Main crime in index verdict
Violent crime   0.77 (0.68-0.87)
Property crime   1.19 (1.08-1.32)
Drug crime   0.83 (0.74-0.92)
  1. 1 Association is statistically significant; confidence interval rounded off to two decimals but separated from 1.