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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression predicting depression symptoms (PHO-9 score ≥ 10 and WHO-5 score ≤ 28) by demographic characteristics, metabolic risk factors and diabetes complications

From: Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

Variables PHQ-9 WHO-5
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Current Age (r = lowest value, 41 years) 1.5 (1.0-1.8) c 1.6 (1.1-2.0) c
Female (r = male) 2.8 (2.0-4.8) b 2.3 (1.8-3.7) b
Schooling in year (r = 0) 0.9 (0.6-2.8) 0.8 (0.4-2.5)
Monthly income > 6000 Taka (r = ≤ 6000 Taka) a 0.5 (0.3-1.0) b 0.6 (0.4-1.2) b
Urban resident (r = rural) 1.3 (0.7-3.8) 1.2 (0.6-3.5)
Treatment intensity   
Insulin (r = oral medication + diet) 1.2 (0.8-2.6) 1.2 (0.7-3.4)
Insulin + oral medication (r = oral medication + diet) 1.6 (1.0-2.8) c 1.5 (1.0-3.1) c
Number of medication (r = lowest number, 3 medicines) 1.1 (0.8-3.2) 1.2 (0.8-3.8)
Co-morbidity   
Cardiovascular Disease (r = no co-morbidity) 1.6 (1.1-2.3) b 1.8 (1.3-3.3) b
Hypertension (r = no co-morbidity) 1.1 (0.5-3.8) 1.1 (0.4-3.5)
Kidney/eye problem/nephropathy (r = no co-morbidity) 1.0 (0.5-3.4) 1.0 (0.6-3.5)
Number of co-morbidity (r = 0) 1.8 (1.2-3.3) b 2.1 (1.3-3.7) b
BMI (r = lowest value, 21.3 g/cm2) 0.9 (0.3-1.9) 0.8 (0.2-2.1)
FBS level (r = lowest value, 97.3 mg/dl) 1.6 (1.0-2.8) c 1.5 (1.0-2.9) c
HbA1c level (r = lowest value, 40 mmol/mol) 2.0 (1.4-3.3) b 2.1 (1.3-3.7) b
  1. aOne US$ = 84 Bangladeshi Taka.
  2. bP value <0.01.
  3. cP value <0.05.
  4. The prevalence of depression used as dependent variable in the logistic regression analysis was derived from the standard assisted data collection or the audio data collection.