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Table 1 Summary of the variables included in the analysis, and differences between individuals reporting chronic whiplash and individuals not reporting chronic whiplash

From: Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

Covariates Chronic whiplash N = 403 No chronic whiplash N = 13,583 P-value (Chi-square test) All N = 13,986
Female 58.3% 53.9% 0.079 54.0%
Anxiety 24.1% 17.6% 0.001 17.8%
Depression 14.6% 9.6% 0.001 9.8%
Sleep quality    <0.001  
 Good 37.0% 42.6%   42.4%
 Bad 17.9% 11.1%   11.4%
 Not asked 45.2% 46.3%   46.3%
Education    0.119  
 Compulsory only 13.7% 17.5%   17.4%
 High School 46.9% 45.7%   45.7%
 University 39.5% 36.8%   36.9%
Benefit recipiency 28.3% 13.0% <0.001 13.4%
 Sickness benefit 10.9% 4.6%   4.7%
 Occupational habilitation 3.5% 1.1%   1.1%
 Disability pension 11.9% 3.3%   3.6%
 Social benefit 1.5% 0.5%   0.6%
 Unemployment benefit 2.5% 1.6%   1.7%
 Dependents’ pension 0.5% 0.7%   0.7%
 Other 2.7% 2.6%   2.6%
Physical activity    0.369  
 None 17.4% 15.5%   15.6%
 Easy 38.7% 41.9%   41.8%
 Heavy 43.9% 42.5%   42.6%
Alcohol consumption    0.838  
 No consumption 27.1% 28.3%   28.3%
 Moderate consumption 67.5% 66.1%   66.1%
 Heavy consumption 5.5% 5.6%   5.6%
Daily smoking 37.5% 35.5% 0.416 35.6%
Somatic diagnoses >0 11.9% 8.1% 0.006 8.2%
Marital status    0.090  
 Not married 11.2% 12.7%   12.6%
 Married 71.5% 74.6%   74.5%
 Separated 3.0% 2.4%   2.4%
 Divorced 13.7% 9.7%   9.8%
 Widow/Widower 0.7% 0.7%   0.7%
Mean somatisation >2 43.2% 21.4% <0.001 22.1%