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Table 1 Patients’ and relatives’ characteristics by level of Expressed Emotion

From: The association between expressed emotion, illness severity and subjective burden of care in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Findings from an Italian population

  Low
EE n = 62
High
EE n = 39
P
PATIENTS    
Age: Mean (SD), yrs. 30.4 (8.7) 28.8 (8.5) NS
Gender: No. (%)    NS
   Male 46 (74) 27 (69)  
Education: Mean (SD), yrs. 12.4 (3.4) 11.1 (2.7) 0.041a
Ordinary employed, No. (%) 17 (27) 7 (18) NS
Married/cohabiting: No. (%) 7 (11) 4 (10) NS
Living conditions: No. (%)    NSb
 In parental home 51 (82) 29 (74)  
 In conjugal home 6 (10) 3 (8)  
 Alone 5 (8) 7 (18)  
Onset age: Mean (SD), yrs. 20.1 (6.3) 20.3 (7.3) NS
Duration of illness: Mean (SD), yrs. 11.2 (8.6) 8.5 (7.2) NS
Previous hospitalizations: Mean (SD), No. 3.2 (4.8) 3.4 (5.5) NS
RELATIVES    
Relationship to Patient    NS
 Parent 46 (74) 34 (87)  
 Sibling 11 (18) 3 (8)  
 Spouse/Partner 5 (8) 2 (5)  
Gender: No. (%)    NS
   Male 20 (32) 15 (38)  
Age: Mean (SD), yrs. 54.4 (11.7) 55.1 (8.4) NS
Education: Mean (SD), yrs. 9.87 (4.1) 9.84 (3.5) NS
Relative’s hours per week spent in contact with the patient > 35: No. (%) 46 (74) 32 (82) NS
SBAS distress scores: Mean (SD)    
 Disturbed behaviour 0.66 (0.62) 1.30 (0.56) <0.0001
 Social role performance 0.37 (0.52) 0.94 (0.56) <0.0001
 Adverse effects 0.59 (0.55) 1.30 (0.52) <0.0001
  1. EE: Expressed Emotion; SBAS: Social Behaviour Assessment Schedule.
  2. at test with unequal variances, (Welch's degrees of freedom) = 2.0679, (95.2897).
  3. bFisher’s exact test.