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Table 3 Associations between disaster-related factors and symptoms of distress at waves 2 and 3 a

From: Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and ten years post-disaster – a longitudinal study

  Symptoms of distress at wave 2 Symptoms of distress at wave 3
  Model 1: Model 2: Model 1: Model 2: Model 3:
  disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors and symptoms of distress and PTSD at waves 1 and 2
  B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P
Intercept 113.33 7.39 < .001 47.77 8.48 < .001 102.95 7.23 < .001 46.02 7.54 < .01 14.05 6.47 n.s.
House destroyed 12.62 4.24 < .05 2.63 3.73 n.s. 10.70 4.81 n.s. 2.04 4.45 n.s. −0.22 2.97 n.s.
Injury self 17.16 7.37 n.s. 11.41 6.41 n.s. 16.39 6.44 < .05 11.37 5.82 n.s. 3.34 4.90 n.s.
Lost a loved one 10.15 7.42 n.s. 5.28 6.87 n.s. 10.61 6.93 n.s. 6.20 6.69 n.s. 2.50 4.63 n.s.
Witnessed injured victims 4.13 4.14 n.s. 3.25 3.65 n.s. 6.18 4.25 n.s. 5.46 4.01 n.s. 2.88 2.74 n.s.
Witnessed deceased victims −2.96 5.15 n.s. −7.13 4.72 n.s. −11.08 5.98 n.s. −14.93 5.62 < .05 −10.26 5.15 n.s.
Heard yelling individuals 3.72 4.01 n.s. 0.82 3.43 n.s. 5.61 3.95 n.s. 2.99 3.41 n.s. 2.4 3.00 n.s.
Felt heart palpitations 8.01 3.92 n.s. −1.20 3.43 n.s. 6.08 4.08 n.s. −2.16 3.59 n.s. −1.51 2.82 n.s.
Felt intense anxiety 4.16 4.00 n.s. 1.04 3.52 n.s. 4.70 3.8 n.s. 1.77 3.46 n.s. 1.15 2.74 n.s.
Fled from explosions/ fire −5.71 3.66 n.s. −0.81 3.13 n.s. −3.55 3.92 n.s. 0.72 3.60 n.s. 1.45 2.93 n.s.
Helped affected victims 2.49 3.4 n.s. 1.78 2.91 n.s. 4.60 3.43 n.s. 3.77 3.18 n.s. 2.41 2.50 n.s.
Felt feelings of guilt or shame 16.86 6.85 n.s. −3.41 6.23 n.s. 22.40 6.56 < .05 4.76 6.00 n.s. 6.68 4.10 n.s.
Confusion 17.21 3.93 <.001 −5.15 3.88 n.s. 9.28 4.4 n.s. −10.66 4.02 < .05 −6.90 3.65 n.s.
Symptoms of distress at wave 1     0.60 0.05 < .001     0.51 0.04 < .01 0.08 0.05 n.s.
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 1     −0.11 0.12 n.s.     0.004 0.12 n.s. 0.05 0.01 n.s.
Symptoms of distress at wave 2              0.70 0.05 < .01
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 2              0.12 0.13 n.s.
  1. a Multiple regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, employment status, educational level, smoking/non-smoking and number of chronic diseases. N.s. = not significant.
  2. Model 1, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.318, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.266, 0.37].
  3. Model 2, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.518, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.477, 0.557].
  4. Model 1, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.326, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.278,0.374].
  5. Model 2, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.47, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.423, 0.515].
  6. Model 3, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.708, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.66, 0.754].