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Table 5 Associations between disaster-related factors and symptoms of ptsd at waves 2 and 3 a

From: Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and ten years post-disaster – a longitudinal study

  Symptoms of PTSD at wave 2 Symptoms of PTSD at wave 3
  Model 1: Model 2: Model 1: Model 2: Model 3:
  disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors and symptoms of distress and PTSD at waves 1 and 2
  B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P
Intercept 4.94 2.31 n.s. −9.71 2.56 <.01 −5.71 2.67 n.s. −18.30 2.75 < .05 −14.80 2.73 < .05
House destroyed 5.44 1.25 < .01 3.19 1.20 <.05 5.66 1.27 < .05 3.73 1.25 < .05 2.03 1.05 n.s.
Injury self 2.27 2.11 n.s. 0.92 1.93 n.s. 2.86 2.05 n.s. 1.70 1.94 n.s. 0.90 2.00 n.s.
Lost a loved one 2.41 2.22 n.s. 0.82 2.04 n.s. 3.72 2.08 n.s. 2.39 1.92 n.s. 1.84 1.51 n.s.
Witnessed injured victims 2.54 1.30 n.s. 2.51 1.19 n.s. 2.98 1.29 n.s. 2.94 1.23 n.s. 1.58 1.02 n.s.
Witnessed deceased victims 3.56 1.74 n.s. 2.00 1.61 n.s. −0.04 2.12 n.s. −1.35 1.98 n.s. −2.17 1.77 n.s.
Heard yelling individuals 1.17 1.39 n.s. 0.18 1.36 n.s. 1.76 1.28 n.s. 0.93 1.17 n.s. 0.81 1.03 n.s.
Felt heart palpitations 4.26 1.20 <.01 1.5 1.08 n.s. 2.14 1.10 n.s. −0.19 1.05 n.s. −0.92 0.90 n.s.
Felt intense anxiety 0.60 1.32 n.s. −0.78 1.24 n.s. 1.26 1.25 n.s. 0.11 1.14 n.s. 0.48 0.96 n.s.
Fled from explosions and/or fire −2.74 1.11 < .05 −1.6 1.01 n.s. −1.95 1.18 n.s. −0.97 1.08 n.s. −0.13 0.92 n.s.
Helped affected victims 1.73 1.09 n.s. 0.98 0.99 n.s. 2.86 1.06 < .05 2.26 0.97 n.s. 1.71 0.81 n.s.
Felt feelings of guilt and/or shame 7.60 1.83 < .01 2.96 1.62 n.s. 6.87 2.49 < .05 2.89 2.42 n.s. 1.45 2.28 n.s.
Confusion 5.15 1.16 < .01 −1.40 1.24 n.s. 4.31 1.15 < .05 −1.23 1.26 n.s. −0.35 1.25 n.s
Symptoms of distress at wave 1     0.1 0.01 < .01     0.09 0.01 < .05 0.02 0.02 n.s
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 1     0.26 0.04 < .01     0.21 0.05 < .05 0.08 0.04 n.s.
Symptoms of distress at wave 2              0.03 0.01 n.s.
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 2              0.51 0.04 < .05
  1. a Multiple regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, employment status, educational level, smoking/non-smoking and number of chronic diseases. N.s. = not significant.
  2. Model 1, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.282, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.234,0.331].
  3. Model 2, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.416, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.37, 0.461].
  4. Model 1, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.336, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.274, 0.398].
  5. Model 2, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.429, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.365, 0.491].
  6. Model 3, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.602, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.549, 0.651].