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Table 2 Factors associated with remission at 5-year follow-up

From: Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

Characteristic Outcome status Bivariate statistics
In remission No. (%) Not in remission No. (%) Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval
Sex- male 38 (58.5) 11 (36.7) 2.43* 1.00- 5.93
Residence- urban 17 (26.2) 1 (3.3) 10.27** 1.30-81.30
No. of meals/day – 2 or less 22 (33.8) 4 (13.3) 3.33* 1.03-10.73
Duration of untreated psychosis >48 weeks1 27 (41.5) 19 (63.3) 0.41* 0.17-1.003
Fluctuating nature of initial illness 54 (83.1) 17 (56.7) 3.75** 1.42-9.91
Explanatory model- evil spirit 8 (12.3) 10 (33.3) 0.28* 0.10-0.81
SAI-E score >31 41 (64.1) 13 (43.3) 2.33 0.96-5.65
6-month data
SAI-E score >71 33 (60.0) 7 (28.0) 3.86** 1.38-10.76
GAF score > 561 33 (60.0) 7 (28.0) 3.86** 1.38-10.76
12-month data
SAI-E score >141 37 (61.7) 11 (37.9) 2.63* 1.06-6.56
BPRS score > 291 26(43.3) 24 (82.8) 0.16*** 0.05-0.47
GAF score > 641 36 (60.0) 8 (27.6) 3.94** 1.50-10.33
Belief in disease model as causal for illness- present 30 (46.2) 5 (16.7) 4.29** 1.46-12.58
60-month data
SAI-E score >331 48 (73.8) 4 (13.3) 18.35*** 5.59-60.28
BPRS score > 271 1(1.5) 48 (73.8) 0.01*** 0.002-0.097
WHODAS II score >81 21 (32.3) 29(96.7) 0.017*** 0.002-0.129
Belief in disease model as causal for illness- present 49 (75.4) 3 (10.0) 27.56*** 7.37-103.1
Belief in evil spirits as causal for illness- present 1 (1.5) 4 (13.3) 0.10* 0.01-0.95
Belief in black magic as causal for illness- present 6 (9.2) 15 (50.0) 0.10*** 0.03-0.31
At least one non-medical explanatory model 59 (90.8) 14 (46.7) 11.24*** 3.72-33.91
Belief in disease model plus at least one non-medical model 48 (73.8) 3 (10.0) 25.41*** 6.82-94.64
Preferred causal explanatory model - disease model 50 (76.9) 2 (6.7) 46.67*** 9.94-219.04
Preferred causal explanatory model – non-medical model 15(23.1) 28 (93.3) 0.02*** 0.005-0.10
  1. Median used to dichotomize continuous variables; BPRS- Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; SAI-E- Schedule for Assessment of Insight-Expanded; PANSS- Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; OR- Odds Ratio; 95%CI- 95% Confidence Interval for Odds Ratio; * = p-value <0.05; ** = p-value <0.01; *** = p-value <0.001
  2. The following variables were not statistically significantly related to outcome:
  3. (i) at baseline- age, years of schooling, literacy, marital status, unemployment, unable to buy food, debt, requires carer, precipitating stress, visit to traditional healer, family history of mental illness, explanatory models related to disease, karma, punishment by God, black magic, involuntary admission status, BPRS scores, GAF score, at least one non- medical explanatory model held, 2 or more explanatory model held, disease model plus at least 1 non-medical model.
  4. (ii) 6-months follow up data- BPRS scores, explanatory models related to disease, karma, punishment by God, black magic, evil spirit, at least one non- medical explanatory model held, 2 or more explanatory model held, disease model plus at least 1 non-medical model.
  5. (iii) 12-month follow up data- explanatory models related to karma, punishment by God, black magic, at least one non- medical explanatory model held, 2 or more explanatory model held, disease model plus at least 1 non-medical model.
  6. (iv) 60-months follow up data- karma, punishment by God, 2 or more explanatory model held.
  7. (v) Over 5-year course- no. of hospital visits, no. of missed appointments, regularity of follow up.