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Table 2 Use of healthcare services during pre- and post-index periods among all GAD patients newly started on benzodiazepines, by age*

From: Change in healthcare utilization and costs following initiation of benzodiazepine therapy for long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a retrospective cohort study

Healthcare Service Patient Age All Patients (N=866)
<50 Years (N=568) ≥50 Years (N=298)
Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value
Outpatient care          
  Outpatient office visits          
  Number (%) with ≥1 visits          
   Accident-related 102 (18.0) 106 (18.7) 0.72 51 (17.1) 53 (17.8) 0.80 153 (17.7) 159 (18.4) 0.66
   Other possibly related 60 (10.6) 69 (12.1) 0.33 37 (12.4) 32 (10.7) 0.47 97 (11.2) 101 (11.7) 0.73
   All of above 142 (25.0) 152 (26.8) 0.45 79 (26.5) 73 (24.5) 0.51 221 (25.5) 225 (26.0) 0.80
   All other 379 (66.7) 410 (72.2) 0.03 209 (70.1) 223 (74.8) 0.14 588 (67.9) 633 (73.1) <0.01
   All 521 (91.7) 562 (98.9) <0.01 288 (96.6) 296 (99.3) 0.02 809 (93.4) 858 (99.1) <0.01
  Mean (SD) number of visits          
   Accident-related 4.2 (14.3) 5.3 (15.0) 0.15 5.9 (19.9) 6.4 (19.2) 0.69 4.8 (16.4) 5.7 (16.5) 0.18
   Other possibly related 2.5 (11.2) 3.6 (12.8) 0.06 3.0 (12.1) 5.7 (23.9) 0.05 2.7 (11.5) 4.3 (17.4) <0.01
   All of above 5.5 (15.3) 7.2 (16.6) 0.02 7.4 (20.5) 9.6 (25.7) 0.11 6.1 (17.3) 8.0 (20.2) <0.01
   All other 8.0 (13.7) 11.6 (15.9) <0.01 12.8 (24.3) 17.7 (24.7) <0.01 9.6 (18.2) 13.7 (19.6) <0.01
   All 13.4 (18.2) 18.8 (19.1) <0.01 20.2 (28.7) 27.3 (30.5) <0.01 15.8 (22.6) 21.7 (23.9) <0.01
 ED visits          
  Number (%) with ≥1 visits          
   Accident-related 44 (7.7) 48 (8.5) 0.60 15 (5.0) 15 (5.0) >0.99 59 (6.8) 63 (7.3) 0.67
   Other possibly related 36 (6.3) 23 (4.0) 0.06 9 (3.0) 14 (4.7) 0.28 45 (5.2) 37 (4.3) 0.33
   All of above 67 (11.8) 61 (10.7) 0.51 21 (7.0) 24 (8.1) 0.62 88 (10.2) 85 (9.8) 0.79
   All other 51 (9.0) 58 (10.2) 0.44 18 (6.0) 24 (8.1) 0.29 69 (8.0) 82 (9.5) 0.23
   All 118 (20.8) 119 (21.0) 0.93 39 (13.1) 48 (16.1) 0.26 157 (18.1) 167 (19.3) 0.48
  Mean (SD) number of visits          
   Accident-related 0.7 (3.7) 1.0 (6.1) 0.27 0.6 (3.4) 1.3 (15.5) 0.47 0.7 (3.6) 1.1 (10.3) 0.25
   Other possibly related 0.8 (4.8) 0.7 (5.5) 0.47 1.1 (15.1) 1.4 (15.6) 0.24 0.9 (9.6) 0.9 (10.2) 0.92
   All of above 1.2 (5.2) 1.3 (6.5) 0.88 1.6 (15.4) 1.6 (15.7) 0.81 1.4 (9.9) 1.4 (10.6) 0.98
   All other 0.8 (4.0) 1.0 (4.7) 0.43 0.6 (3.1) 0.8 (4.0) 0.51 0.7 (3.7) 0.9 (4.5) 0.30
   All 2.1 (6.4) 2.3 (7.9) 0.49 2.2 (15.6) 2.3 (16.1) 0.72 2.1 (10.5) 2.3 (11.4) 0.44
Hospitalizations          
 Number (%) with ≥1 hospitalizations          
  Accident-related 11 (1.9) 13 (2.3) 0.67 8 (2.7) 7 (2.3) 0.76 19 (2.2) 20 (2.3) 0.86
  Other possibly related 12 (2.1) 13 (2.3) 0.83 8 (2.7) 10 (3.4) 0.56 20 (2.3) 23 (2.7) 0.60
  All of above 18 (3.2) 22 (3.9) 0.50 12 (4.0) 11 (3.7) 0.78 30 (3.5) 33 (3.8) 0.67
  All other 23 (4.0) 17 (3.0) 0.29 14 (4.7) 11 (3.7) 0.44 37 (4.3) 28 (3.2) 0.19
  All 41 (7.2) 39 (6.9) 0.80 26 (8.7) 22 (7.4) 0.41 67 (7.7) 61 (7.0) 0.51
 Mean (SD) number of hospitalizations          
  Accident-related 0.7 (6.1) 1.2 (11.2) 0.38 1.1 (8.6) 1.3 (10.1) 0.75 0.9 (7.0) 1.2 (10.8) 0.36
  Other possibly related 0.9 (7.3) 1.3 (12.1) 0.52 1.5 (10.9) 1.7 (11.0) 0.74 1.1 (8.7) 1.4 (11.7) 0.48
  All of above 1.2 (8.1) 1.7 (13.0) 0.40 1.7 (11.1) 1.8 (11.0) 0.98 1.4 (9.3) 1.7 (12.4) 0.47
  All other 0.9 (5.9) 0.5 (4.1) 0.13 1.7 (9.0) 0.8 (5.9) 0.11 1.2 (7.1) 0.6 (4.8) 0.03
  All 2.2 (9.9) 2.2 (13.6) 0.94 3.5 (14.1) 2.6 (12.4) 0.30 2.6 (11.6) 2.3 (13.2) 0.56
  1. GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder; SD: Standard deviation; ED: Emergency department.