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Table 1 (Categories of) exclusion criteria found in psychotherapy efficacy trials

From: The generalizability of psychotherapy efficacy trials in major depressive disorder: an analysis of the influence of patient selection in efficacy trials on symptom outcome in daily practice

Categorical exclusion criterion Subtypes of exclusion criteria included in Category* Proportion of trials using the criteria
Bipolar disorder or history of (hypo-) manic episode   95%
Schizophrenia, a history of psychosis or psychotic features   90%
Current or past abuse or dependence on alcohol and/or drugs - Alcohol abuse or dependence 85%
  - Drug abuse or dependence  
Not meeting a minimum severity threshold   80%
Previous use of medication or ECT - ECT less than 6 months before start of trial 70%
  - History of use of a tricyclic antidepressant  
  - Use of amitriptyline less than 3 months prior to trial  
  - Use of imipramine less than 3 months prior to trial  
  - Use of paroxetine less than 1 year prior to trial  
  - Use of any antidepressant less than 2 months prior to trial  
  - Use of any antidepressant less than 1 month prior to trial  
  - Use of any antidepressant less than 2 weeks prior to trial  
  - Current use of an antidepressant  
Co morbid personality disorder - Borderline personality disorder 60%
  - Antisocial personality disorder  
  - Schizotypical personality disorder  
Cognitive disorders - Cognitive disorders in general 55
  - Organic brain syndrome  
  - Delirium or dementia  
  - Mental retardation  
Somatic concerns - Somatic co morbidity in general 55%
  - Co morbid somatisation disorder  
Anxiety disorder as primary diagnosis - Generalized anxiety disorder 45%
  - Specific phobia  
  - Obsessive-compulsive disorder  
  - Panic disorder  
Contra indication for the use of medication in general   45%
Suicidal ideation   40%
Previous psychotherapy, with or without success History of psychotherapy  
  - Psychotherapy less than 5 years prior to trial  
  - Psychotherapy less than 2 years prior to trial  
  - Psychotherapy less than 1 year prior to trial  
  - Psychotherapy less than 2 months prior to trial  
  - Current psychotherapy  
Psychiatric co morbidity in general, including eating disorders   25%
Crisis - Need for immediate intervention 20%
  - Indication for admission  
  1. *If no subtypes are mentioned, the categorical exclusion criterion was reported in the same way in all trials.