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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample with chronic conditions and its difference between men and women a

From: Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

Variables Total Men Women P values
Number (%) 6,195 (100%) 2,862 (46.2%) 3,333 (53.8%) -
Mean age in years (SD) b 58.5 (16.7) 58.4 (16.8) 58.6 (16.6) 0.75
Marital status (%)     <0.001
  Never Married 13.0 13.9 12.3  
 Married 70.6 78.3 64.0  
 Widowed 12.1 4.3 18.9  
 Divorced/Separated 4.2 3.5 4.9  
Education levels (%)     <0.001
 Primary 44.8 37.4 51.1  
 Secondary 39.6 43.2 36.5  
 Tertiary or above 15.7 19.4 12.4  
Monthly family income (HK$ c, %)    0.09  
 No income or <5,000 26.9 25.3 28.2  
 5,000–9,999 17.6 17.2 17.6  
 10,000–19,999 25.1 26.1 24.1  
 20,000–29,999 14.6 15.1 14.2  
 ≥ 30,000 15.8 16.4 15.4  
Number of chronic conditions d (%)     <0.05
 1 60.8 62.0 59.7  
 2 25.7 25.6 25.8  
 ≥ 3 13.5 12.4 14.5  
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.5 (4.2) 24.5 (3.9) 24.5 (4.4) 0.79
Current high risk drinker (yes, %) 4.8 8.3 1.8 <0.001
Current smoker (yes, %) 12.2 22.1 3.6 <0.001
Physically more active (yes, %) 30.2 30.3 30.1 >0.05
Level of depressive symptom severity (PHQ-9 score, %)     <0.001
 Minimal depression (scores 0–4) 83.0 86.2 80.3  
 Mild (5–9) 12.8 10.7 14.6  
 Moderate (10–14) 2.8 1.9 3.6  
 Moderately severe (15–19) 1.0 1.1 1.0  
 Severe (≥20) 0.4 0.2 0.5  
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score) e 2.29 (3.38) 1.94 (3.10) 2.60 (3.57) <0.001
Non-somatic depression score (PHQ-6) 0.95 (2.07) 0.82 (1.91) 1.06 (2.20) <0.001
Somatic depression score (PHQ-3) 1.34 (1.71) 1.11 (1.57) 1.54 (1.81) <0.001
Life stress f 0.16 (0.36) 0.14 (0.34) 0.17 (0.37) <0.001
Living alone (yes, %) 14.7 12.6 16.5 <0.001
Family satisfaction g 6.47 (3.49) 6.31 (3.48) 6.60 (3.50) <0.01
Neighborhood cohesion h 2.49 (0.62) 2.53 (0.60) 2.47 (0.63) <0.001
  1. a P values for difference between men and women.
  2. b Unless otherwise indicated, data presented are mean (standard division).
  3. c US$ 1 = HK$7.8.
  4. d Summed by self-reported hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, dyslipidemia, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, digestive disease, chronic musculoskeletal condition and cancer.
  5. e Measured by PHQ-9; scores range from 0 to 27, higher scores indicate greater severity of depressive symptom.
  6. f Measured by the stressful life event questionnaire; scores range from 0 to 4.59, higher scores indicate greater life events related stress.
  7. g Measured by Family APGAR; scores range from 0 to 10, higher scores indicate greater satisfaction with family support.
  8. h Perceived neighborhood social cohesion; scores range from 1 to 5, higher scores indicate greater social cohesion.