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Table 3 Results of regression analyses studying main effects and interaction effects of circadian and behavioral factors on the children’s sleep habits questionnaire controlling for age and pubertal development

From: Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

Measure CSHQ bedtime resistance CSHQ sleep onset delay PSG sleep onset delay
B SE B β B SE B β B SE B β
Control (Model 1)          
 Age −0.36 0.24 −0.18 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.49 1.97 0.03
 PDS score 0.24 0.16 0.18 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.51 1.25 0.06
 Total R 2 (adjusted) 0.03    −0.01    −0.03   
Main effects (Model 2)          
 Age −0.18 0.24 −0.09 0.03 0.06 0.05 −0.91 1.88 −0.06
 PDS score 0.18 0.16 0.13 −0.01 0.04 −0.03 0.30 1.14 0.03
 Group (ADHD & Control) −0.18 0.70 −0.03 0.01 0.18 0.01 4.23 5.14 0.11
 MES for Children (Total) −0.08 0.33 −0.03 −0.37** 0.08 −0.49 −8.16** 2.42 −0.43
 CBCL: Externalizing (T score) 0.90* 0.34 0.35 0.03 0.09 0.04 −4.10 2.55 −0.22
 Total R 2 (adjusted) 0.10*    0.20**    0.16*   
Interaction (Model 3)          
 Age −0.12 0.24 −0.06 0.04 0.06 0.08 −0.93 1.93 −0.07
 PDS score 0.16 0.16 0.12 −0.01 0.04 −0.02 0.70 1.21 0.08
 Group (ADHD &Control) −0.02 0.73 −0.00 0.09 0.19 0.06 5.46 5.42 0.15
 MES for Children (Total Score) −0.57 0.45 −0.21 −0.42** 0.12 −0.56 −5.80 3.33 −0.31
 CBCL: Externalizing (T score) 1.03* 0.42 0.40 0.11 0.11 0.16 −2.62 2.90 −0.14
 MES Total x Group 1.03 0.64 0.26 0.13 0.17 0.12 −4.63 5.11 −0.16
 CBCL Externalizing x Group −0.40 0.68 −0.10 −0.23 0.18 −0.21 −6.39 6.11 −0.16
 Total R 2 (adjusted) 0.11*    0.20*    0.16*   
  1. Note. B and β refer to the unstandardized and standardized partial regression coefficients, respectively, and SE B refers to the standard error of the unstandardized coefficient. All group analyses use controls as the reference value. R2 values refer to the variation accounted for by the model. PDS refers to the Pubertal Development Scale; MES refers to the Morningness- Eveningness Scale; CBCL refers to the Child Behavior Checklist. In this model, the ADHD group is in reference to normal controls. *p ≤ .05. ** p ≤ .001.