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Table 4 Analysis of TNF-alpha, sCD14, IL1-ra, and neopterin in age subgroups

From: Altered monocyte activation markers in Tourette’s syndrome: a case–control study

   TNF-alpha IL1-ra sCD14 Neopterin
   (pg/ml) (ng/ml) (ng/ml) (nmol/l)
Healthy mean ± SD 0.67 ± 0.24 0.056 ± 0.051 8.0 ± 1.4 4.70 ± 1.09
children vs. rank sum 24.00 29.45 18.89 18.80
healthy mean ± SD 0.51 ± 0.23 0.035 ± 0.058 8.6 ± 2.1 5.31 ± 1.90
adults rank sum 17.15 19.02 21.59 22.34
  p-value* (n) n.s. (10/27) 0.017 (10/32) n.s. (9/32) n.s. (10/32)
TS children mean ± SD 0.46 ± 0.20 0.056 ± 0.136 6.3 ± 1.0 5.35 ± 1.79
vs. rank sum 22.50 25.07 20.37 17.54
TS adults mean ± SD 0.41 ± 0.18 0.014 ± 0.096 6.6 ± 1.6 6.32 ± 2.07
  rank sum 19.42 21.17 23.60 24.16
  p-value* (n) n.s. (14/26) n.s. (15/29) n.s. (15/29) n.s. (14/29)
Healthy mean ± SD 0.67 ± 0.24 0.056 ± 0.051 8.0 ± 1.4 4.70 ± 1.09
children vs. rank sum 16.00 17.05 17.72 11.25
TS children mean ± SD 0.46 ± 0.20 0.056 ± 0.136 6.3 ± 1.0 5.35 ± 1.79
  rank sum 10.00 10.30 9.37 13.39
  p-value* (n) 0.042 (10/14) 0.023 (10/15) 0.003 (9/15) n.s. (10/14)
Healthy adults mean ± SD 0.51 ± 0.23 0.035 ± 0.058 8.6 ± 2.1 5.31 ± 1.90
vs. rank sum 30.54 35.48 39.48 26.20
TS adults mean ± SD 0.41 ± 0.18 0.014 ± 0.096 6.6 ± 1.6 6.32 ± 2.07
  rank sum 23.33 26.05 21.64 36.29
  p-value* (n) n.s. (27/26) 0.038 (32/29) 0.000 (32/29) 0.027 (32/29)
  1. TS = Tourette’s syndrome, n = number, SD = standard deviation, n.s. = not significant, *Mann–Whitney U Test.