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Table 5 Linear and quadratic correlations of neurocognitive executive functioning to patient anterior insula GMV

From: Correlating anterior insula gray matter volume changes in young people with clinical and neurocognitive outcomes: an MRI study

  Linear correlation Quadratic correlation
Neurocognitive performance Left anterior insula Right anterior insula Left anterior insula Right anterior insula
Set Shifting (IED Total error) ρ(109) = .32** ρ(109) = .13 r(106) = .31** r(106) = .22
Working Memory (SSP) ρ(107) = .08 ρ(107) = −.00 r(104) = .20 r(104) = .16
Mental Flexibility (TMT-B) ρ(114) = −.04 ρ(114) = .04 r(111) = .02 r(111) = .10
Sustained Attention (RVP-A) r(106) = −.08 r(106) = −.05 r(103) = .13 r(103) = .05
Verbal Fluency (COWAT) r(112) = .10 r(112) = .09 r(109) = .10 r(109) = .14
  1. Spearman’s ρ (non-normal score distribution) or Pearson’s r (normal score distribution) correlation analysis explored the linear relationship between the left or right anterior insula GMV (corrected for ICV) against z-scores of neuropsychological assessments of executive function (n = 133), controlling for age. Curve estimation regression explored the quadratic correlation between the same regions of interest and neuropsychological assessments of executive function. ** p < .01 (2-tailed).