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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants

From: Efficacy of a behavioral self-help treatment with or without therapist guidance for co-morbid and primary insomnia -a randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) Bibliotherapy (n = 45) Waiting list control (n = 44) Total (N = 133) P Valuea
Age, mean (SD), years 50.8 (11.8) 47.4 (13.3) 45.4 (16.0) 47.9 (13.9) .18
Women, No. (%) 33 (75) 36 (80) 40 (90.9) 109 (82) .14
Marital status, No. (%)      
   Married/living with partner 30 (68.1) 37 (82.2) 29 (65.9) 96 (72.2) .64
   Separated/Divorced/Widowed 6 (13.6) 2 (4.4) 5 (11.4) 13 (9.8)  
   Singel/Other 8 (18.2) 6 (13.3) 10 (22.7) 24 (18.0)  
Educational level, No. (%)      
   Compulsary school/Other 2 (4.5) 8 (17.8) 3 (6.8) 13 (9.8) .30
   Upper secondary school 13 (29.5) 16 (35.6) 18 (40.9) 47 (35.3)  
   College/University 29 (65.9) 21 (46.7) 23 (52.3) 73 (54.9)  
Current occuptaion b, No.(%)      
   Work/Full time studies 27 (61.4) 30 (66.7) 25 (56.8) 82 (61.7) .63
   On sick-leave 9 (20.4) 5 (11.1) 4 (9.1) 18 (13.5) .25
   Unemployed 3 (6.8) 2 (4.4) 2 (4.5) 7 (5.3) .98
   Retired 6 (13.6) 8 (17.8) 9 (20.5) 23 (17.3) .70
   Works at home/On parental leave/Other 9 (20.4) 5 (11.1) 6 (13.3) 20 (15.0) .44
Economic situation, No. (%)      
   Bad/Very bad 3 (6.8) 3 (6.7) 7 (15.9) 13 (9.8) .36
   Neither good nor bad 13 (29.5) 8 (17.8) 14 (31.8) 35 (26.3)  
   Good/Very good 28 (63.6) 34 (75.6) 23 (52.3) 85 (63.9)  
Depression level (MADRS) at screening, mean (SD) 14.1 (6.38) 12.8 (6.05) 15.2 (5.85) 14.0 (6.13) .19
Insomnia Severity (ISI) at screening, mean (SD) 18.2 (3.5) 18.3 (3.3) 18.3 (3.3) 18.3 (3.3) .99
History of Insomnia, mean (SD), years 11.7 (13.1) 12.7 (13.1) 11.1 (9.4) 11.8 (12.0) .82
Co-morbid Insomnia No. (%) 39 (88.6) 44 (97.8) 40 (90.9) 123 (92.5) .45
Number of co-morbid problems, mean (SD) 2.8 (2.3) 3.7 (2.2) 3.5 (2.2) 3.4 (2.3) .17
Sleep medication use at pre-assessment, No. (%) 20 (45.5) 14 (31.1) 25 (56.8) 59 (44.3) .05
  1. a P values are based on analysis of variance or X 2 tests
  2. b more than 1 choice possible