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Table 2 Parental attachment, personality characteristics, and mental health status of patients with AD + HY, with AD–HY, and controls (N = 917)

From: Parental bonding in males with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome

Factors AD + HY AD–HY Control ANOVA Bonferroni post hoc test
  (n = 156) (n = 273) (n = 488)   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Personality characteristics      
Extroversion 6.08 (4.23) 4.47 (3.94) 9.31 (3.50) F = 155.53 Hyperventilation < Control; MD = −0.32, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation > Adjustment; MD = 1.61, p < 0.001
      Adjustment < Control; MD = −4.85, p < 0.001
Neuroticism 7.86 (3.08) 9.26 (2.34) 3.00 (3.04) F = 473.74 Hyperventilation > Control; MD = 4.86, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation < Adjustment; MD = −1.39, p < 0.001
      Adjustment > Control; MD = 6.26, p < 0.001
Parental bonding      
Maternal care 22.75 (6.04) 21.34 (7.63) 25.42 (6.39) F = 34.29 Hyperventilation < Control; MD = −2.67, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation > Adjustment; MD = 1.41, p = 0.110
      Adjustment < Control; MD = −4.08, p < 0.001
Maternal protection 14.72 (6.54) 15.29 (6.89) 10.92 (6.06) F = 48.76 Hyperventilation > Control; MD = 3.81, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation < Adjustment; MD = −0.56, p = 1.00
      Adjustment > Control; MD = 4.37, p < 0.001
Paternal care 19.07 (6.88) 16.59 (7.48) 22.86 (6.78) F = 73.02 Hyperventilation < Control; MD = −3.79, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation > Adjustment; MD = 2.48, p = 0.001
      Adjustment < Control; MD = −6.27, p < 0.001
Paternal protection 14.47 (5.54) 15.50 (6.20) 10.68 (5.81) F = 66.49 Hyperventilation > Control; MD = 3.79, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation < Adjustment; MD = −1.03, p = 2.47
      Adjustment > Control; MD = 4.82, p < 0.001
Mental health 6.62 (3.51) 7.45 (3.49) 1.00 (1.88) F = 574.44 Hyperventilation > Control; MD = 5.63, p < 0.001
     p < .001 Hyperventilation < Adjustment; MD = −0.83, p = 0.008
      Adjustment > Control; MD = 6.46, p < 0.001
  1. AD + HY: adjustment disorder with hyperventilation syndrome; AD–HY: adjustment disorder without hyperventilation syndrome; MD: mean difference.