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Table 3 Results of all outcomes (individual studies and overall effect)

From: Combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  Response Remission Depressive symptoms Quality of life3 Dropout
  BR (95% CI) BR (95% CI) short term1 long term2 SMD (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
    SMD (95% CI)   
Browne 2002 0.97 (0.81,1.16) 0.94 (0.71,1.25) −0.07 (−0.27,0.13) 0.04 (−0.16,0.24) 0.03 (−0.17,0.23) 0.98 (0.59,1.64)
deMello 2001 1.37 (0.98,1.91) 1.45 (0.81,2.59) 0.48 (−0.34,1.30) 0.50 (−0.38,1.38) 0.65 (−0.17,1.47) 0.44 (0.11,1.70)
Keller 2000 1.56 (1.33,1.84) 2.07 (1.46,2.95) 0.54 (0.19,0.89) not reported 0.29 (0.11,0.47) 0.76 (0.49,1.17)
Kocsis (CBASP) 2009 1.07 (0.67,1.70) 1.11 (0.67,1.84) 0.12 (−0.23,0.47) not reported 0.22 (−0.13,0.57) 0.71 (0.30,1.70)
Kocsis (BSP) 2009 0.85 (0.53,1.38) 0.91 (0.54,1.54) −0.06 (−0.41,0.29) not reported 0.07 (−0.28,0.42) 0.80 (0.34,1.90)
Markowitz 2005 0.98 (0.59,1.62) 1.26 (0.67,2.35) −0.27 (−0.86,0.32) not reported 0.22 (−0.37,0.81) 0.89 (0.21,3.88)
Miller 1999 11.27 (0.70,181.41) 1.29 (0.47,3.51) 4.15 (2.78,5.52) 0.10 (−0.66,0.86) 1.15 (0.33,1.97) 1.36 (0.19,9.91)
Ravindran 1999 1.25 (0.78,1.99) 1.06 (0.57,1.95) 0.05 (−0.54,0.64) not reported 0.15 (−0.54,0.84) not estimable
Schramm 2008 1.86 (1.02,3.40) 1.75 (0.80,3.84) 0.53 (−0.06,1.12) 0.63 (−0.06,1.32) not reported 3.17 (0.56,17.78)
total      
overall effect * 1.20 (0.98,1.48) 1.25 (0.97,1.61) 0.13 (−0.08,0.34) 0.25 (−0.15,0.66) 0.18 (0.07,0.29) 0.84 (0.64,1.11)
p for overall effect * 0.080 0.080 0.220 0.220 0.002 0.210
I² * 67% 52% 50% 42% 0% 0%
p for heterogeneity * 0.004 0.040 0.050 0.180 0.490 0.690
  1. 1 = symptoms at end of intervention; 2 = symptoms at follow-up (follow-up ranged from 8 to 18 months after the end of intervention); 3 = in the case of three studies data are based on the Social Adjustment Scale; CI = confidence interval; SMD = standardized mean difference; BR = benefit ratio; OR = odds ratio; CBASP = Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy; BSP = Brief Supportive Psychotherapy; p = level of significance; I² = measure of heterogeneity; * results after removal of the study by Miller 1999.