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Table 4 Results of meta-regression analysis

From: Combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  Response (lnBR) Depression symptoms (SMD)
  constant1 beta2 p constant1 beta2 p
% early onset 0.34 −0.30 .564 .06 0.43 −0.63 .255 .19
baseline severity −0.66 0.04 .160 .28 −0.89 0.05 .129 .32
diagnosis (reference dysthymia) −0.05    .69 −0.18    .69
% chronic MD   1.44 .028    0.88 .252  
% recurrent without remission   −1.16 .211    −0.88 .312  
% double depression   0.40 .085    0.81 .111  
mean age 1.46 −0.03 .463 .09 0.75 −0.02 .760 .01
% female −0.55 1.13 .373 .13 −0.77 1.43 .372 .12
sessions −0.13 0.02 .631 .03 −0.27 0.03 .560 .04
treatment duration (weeks) 0.31 −0.01 .521 .06 0.37 −0.02 .137 .19
setting outpatient (vs. inpatient) 0.39 −0.24 .348 .15 0.29 −0.20 .469 .07
type of PT (reference IPT) 0.07    .57 −0.01    .40
CBT   0.15 .555    0.06 .846  
CBASP   0.33 .002    0.34 .028  
BSP   −0.23 .365    −0.05 .807  
type of medication SSRI (vs. others) 0.42 −0.40 ≤.001 .72 0.53 −0.54 .003 .64
low risk of bias (vs. medium) 0.28 −0.12 .599 .05 0.21 −0.10 .754 .01
total N in study 0.23 −0.00 .756 .02 0.13 0.00 .980 .00
multiple regression analysis 0.33    0.79 0.38    .78
% chronic MD   0.51 .317    0.54 .237  
CBASP   −0.66 .769    −0.01 .969  
type of medication SSRI (vs. others)   −0.35 .021    −0.46 .035  
  1. 1 unstandardized regression constant (equals treatment effect reference category) 2 unstandardized regression weight; positive values indicate superiority of the add-on psychotherapy to medication over medication alone; lnBR = natural logarithm of Benefit Risk; SMD = Standardized Mean Difference; p = level of significance; R² = explained variance; MD = Major Depression; PT = psychotherapy; IPT = Interpersonal Psychotherapy; CBT = Cognitive Behavioural Therapy; CBASP = Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy; BSP = Brief Supportive Psychotherapy.