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Table 5 Non-traumatic and traumatic experiences in Bougainville Veterans and subsequent physical and psychological health outcomes (n=1704)

From: Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

  K10 PCL-C Symptoms
K10>29 n (%) Odds Ratio 95% CIA PCL-C>49 n (%) Odds Ratio 95% CIA Mean (SD) Ratio of means 95% CIB
Objective stressors       
0 38 (4.8) 1 (Reference) 28 (3.6) 1 (Reference) 13.0 (10.6) 1 (Reference)
1 17 (6.4) 1.06 (0.55, 2.03) 16 (6.5) 1.15 (0.55, 2.42) 14.2 (11.1) 0.96 (0.87, 1.06)
2-3 21 (6.4) 0.98 (0.52, 1.85) 24 (7.6) 1.31 (0.67, 2.57) 15.6 (12.6) 0.98 (0.89, 1.07)
4+ 20 (7.1) 0.91 (0.46, 1.80) 24 (8.9) 1.06 (0.52, 2.15) 18.1 (13.1) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17)
Test for trend p-value   0.79   0.76   0.60
Subjective stressors       
0 24 (4.4) 1 (Reference) 12 (2.3) 1 (Reference) 11.1 (9.9) 1 (Reference)
1 9 (5.4) 1.10 (0.45, 2.71) 12 (7.5) 2.91 (1.08, 7.85) 13.4 (11.1) 1.08 (0.95, 1.24)
2-3 22 (4.8) 0.89 (0.44, 1.77) 16 (3.6) 1.07 (0.43, 2.68) 14.3 (10.5) 1.09 (0.99, 1.21)
4+ 44 (8.6) 1.17 (0.58, 2.36) 55 (11.1) 2.51 (1.06, 5.95) 19.0 (13.2) 1.20 (1.08, 1.33)
Test for trend p-value   0.75   0.08   0.001
Separation stressors       
8 11 (3.5) 1 (Reference) 6 (2.0) 1 (Reference) 9.6 (9.3) 1 (Reference)
9-11 17 (4.0) 0.75 (0.32, 1.78) 9 (2.2) 0.47 (0.15, 1.49) 11.9 (9.9) 1.04 (0.93, 1.17)
12-15 18 (3.8) 0.42 (0.16, 1.07) 20 (4.3) 0.42 (0.13, 1.31) 14.8 (11.0) 1.09 (0.97, 1.23)
16-40 53 (12.5) 1.01 (0.39, 2.57) 56 (13.8) 0.66 (0.21, 2.10) 20.7 (12.9) 1.07 (0.94, 1.23)
Test for trend p-value   0.60   0.72   0.27
Culture stressors       
10 11 (3.5) 1 (Reference) 3 (1.0) 1 (Reference) 8.0 (7.6) 1 (Reference)
11-13 22 (3.9) 0.76 (0.32, 1.79) 14 (2.6) 1.58 (0.38, 6.48) 12.9 (9.9) 1.29 (1.15, 1.45)
14-17 20 (4.8) 0.65 (0.24, 1.75) 21 (5.3) 1.97 (0.44, 8.83) 15.9 (10.9) 1.32 (1.15, 1.52)
18-50 44 (12.8) 1.20 (0.40, 3.57) 56 (16.8) 3.71 (0.78, 17.7) 22.3 (13.5) 1.44 (1.22, 1.70)
Test for trend p-value   0.48   0.03   <0.001
Other people stressors       
11-12 7 (2.1) 1 (Reference) 3 (0.9) 1 (Reference) 8.6 (7.9) 1 (Reference)
13-16 18 (3.9) 2.26 (0.79, 6.44) 11 (2.4) 1.70 (0.37, 7.83) 12.0 (9.5) 1.09 (0.97, 1.23)
17-21 27 (6.0) 2.80 (0.85, 9.26) 21 (4.8) 2.14 (0.41, 11.17) 15.4 (10.5) 1.10 (0.96, 1.26)
22-55 47 (11.9) 3.54 (0.97, 12.90) 59 (15.5) 4.31 (0.78, 23.83) 22.0 (13.7) 1.14 (0.96, 1.34)
Test for trend p-value   0.09   0.02   0.18
Work frustration stressors       
5 15 (2.9) 1 (Reference) 7 (1.4) 1 (Reference) 9.7 (8.7) 1 (Reference)
6-7 17 (4.4) 1.16 (0.51, 2.67) 13 (3.4) 1.32 (0.42, 4.15) 13.1 (10.2) 1.08 (0.97, 1.20)
8-10 14 (3.7) 0.68 (0.26, 1.72) 14 (3.8) 0.91 (0.27, 2.99) 15.6 (10.6) 1.15 (1.03, 1.29)
11-25 55 (13.9) 2.04 (0.83, 4.98) 61 (16.1) 2.38 (0.75, 7.56) 21.9 (13.7) 1.17 (1.03, 1.33)
Test for trend p-value   0.08   0.04   0.01
  1. A adjusted for age (20-29, 30-39, 40+), Sex, Service, Rank (officer or enlisted) and quartiles of traumatic and non-traumatic stress.
  2. B adjusted for age (20-29, 30-39, 40+), Sex, Service, Rank (officer or enlisted), K10 and quartiles of traumatic and non-traumatic stress.