Skip to main content

Table 6 Non-traumatic and traumatic experiences in East Timor Veterans and subsequent physical and psychological health outcomes (n=1333)

From: Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

  K10 PCL-C Symptoms
K10>29 n (%) Odds Ratio 95% CIA PCL-C>49 n (%) Odds Ratio 95% CIA Mean (SD) Ratio of means 95% CIB
Objective stressors       
0 16 (5.2) 1 (Reference) 13 (4.5) 1 (Reference) 11.9 (10.8) 1 (Reference)
1 7 (3.7) 0.46 (0.16, 1.37) 5 (2.7) 0.47 (0.14, 1.62) 12.4 (10.1) 1.01 (0.89, 1.16)
2-3 14 (4.1) 0.49 (0.21, 1.17) 13 (3.8) 0.41 (0.15, 1.12) 15.0 (11.3) 1.06 (0.95, 1.20)
4+ 59 (12.1) 1,05 (0.50, 2.24) 67 (14.1) 1.35 (0.58, 3.11) 18.6 (13.5) 1.05 (0.94, 1.19)
Test for trend p-value   0.49   0.12   0.33
Subjective stressors       
0 12 (4.7) 1 (Reference) 6 (2.5) 1 (Reference) 10.0 (9.6) 1 (Reference)
1 3 (2.4) 0.12 (0.02, 1.00) 2 (1.7) - 12.5 (10.0) 1.29 (1.10, 1.51)
2-3 17 (4.4) 0.54 (0.22, 1.30) 16 (4.3) 1.31 (0.44, 3.88) 14.0 (10.1) 1.29 (1.14, 1.46)
4+ 62 (10.9) 0.99 (0.43, 2.30) 72 (13.1) 2.48 (0.85, 7.23) 19.1 (13.3) 1.39 (1.23, 1.58)
Test for trend p-value   0.41   0.008   <0.001
Separation stressors B       
8 7 (3.8) 1 (Reference) 5 (2.9) 1 (Reference) 10.4 (10.1) 1 (Reference)
9-11 12 (3.4) 0.64 (0.22, 1.86) 14 (4.0) 0.99 (0.30, 3.26) 11.3 (9.8) 1.04 (0.91, 1.19)
12-15 21 (5.6) 0.69 (0.24, 2.01) 13 (3.6) 0.39 (0.11, 1.41) 15.0 (10.9) 1.14 (0.98, 1.31)
16-40 53 (12.9) 0.88 (0.29, 2.64) 64 (16.1) 0.81 (0.22, 2.90) 21.0 (13.3) 1.17 (1.00, 1.37)
Test for trend p-value   0.77   0.99   0.02
Culture stressors B       
10 3 (2.4) 1 (Reference) 5 (4.3) 1 (Reference) 8.7 (9.8) 1 (Reference)
11-13 15 (3.7) 1.90 (0.38, 9.49) 8 (2.1) 0.32 (0.07, 1.36) 11.1 (8.9) 1.03 (0.88, 1.21)
14-17 19 (5.2) 2.65 (0.49, 14.37) 14 (3.9) 0.66 (0.15, 2.87) 14.1 (10.4) 1.02 (0.86, 1.22)
18-50 62 (13.8) 3.91 (0.68, 22.61) 74 (17.0) 1.42 (0.31, 6.48) 21.7 (13.5) 1.05 (0.86, 1.28)
Test for trend p-value   0.06   0.03   0.65
Other people stressors B       
11-12 7 (3.5) 1 (Reference) 4 (2.1) 1 (Reference) 8.7 (8.8) 1 (Reference)
13-16 15 (4.3) 0.99 (0.31, 3.18) 13 (3.8) 1.62 (0.37, 7.01) 11.6 (9.8) 1.29 (1.10, 1.51)
17-21 16 (4.6) 0.83 (0.23, 3.01) 14 (4.2) 1.43 (0.28, 7.32) 15.1 (10.3) 1.29 (1.14, 1.43)
22-55 57 (12.9) 1.20 (0.32, 4.51) 68 (16.0) 2.04 (0.39, 10.67) 21.3 (13.5) 1.28 (1.08, 1.52)
Test for trend p-value   0.59   0.38   0.003
Work frustration stressors B       
5 8 (2.9) 1 (Reference) 8 (3.0) 1 (Reference) 9.6 (9.5) 1 (Reference)
6-7 7 (2.7) 1.16 (0.36, 3.72) 5 (2.0) 0.70 (0.19, 2.57) 12.0 (9.4) 1.08 (0.95, 1.23)
8-10 16 (4.7) 1.34 (0.45, 4.01) 11 (3.3) 0.71 (0.22, 2.35) 14.5 (10.6) 1.13 (0.99, 1.28)
11-25 67 (14.3) 2.79 (0.96, 8.12) 76 (16.9) 2.63 (0.88, 7.88) 21.2 (13.5) 1.15 (1.00, 1.32)
Test for trend p-value   0.02   0.004   0.05
  1. A adjusted for age (20-29, 30-39, 40+), Sex, Service, Rank (officer or enlisted) and quartiles of traumatic and non-traumatic stress.
  2. B adjusted for age (20-29, 30-39, 40+), Sex, Service, Rank (officer or enlisted), K10 and quartiles of traumatic and non-traumatic stress.