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Table 3 Demographic and clinical characteristics, by study cohort*

From: Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: A retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Schizophrenia Cohort Bipolar Cohort
(N = 43) (N = 84)
Mean (SD) age 46.1 (13.0) 44.5 (15.0)
Female 25 (58.1) 62 (73.8)
Payer type   
 HMO 3 (7.0) 9 (10.7)
 POS 21 (48.8) 48 (57.1)
 PPO 5 (11.6) 12 (14.3)
 Other/unknown 14 (32.6) 15 (17.9)
Comorbidities   
 Mental disorders   
  Depressive disorders 17 (39.5) 43 (51.2)
  Dementia 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Anxiety disorders 4 (9.3) 31 (36.9)
  PTSD 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Insomia 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Other psychoses 11 (25.6) 19 (22.6)
  Bulinia nervosa 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Impulse-control disorder 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Chronic fatigue syndrome 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Alcohol/drug abuse 9 (20.9) 12 (14.3)
  Suicide/self harm attempts 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Any of above 29 (67.4) 69 (82.1)
All other   
  Diabetes 10 (23.3) 13 (15.5)
  Hypertension 9 (20.9) 21 (25.0)
  Obesity 3 (7.0) 3 (3.6)
  Arthritis 2 (4.7) 2 (2.4)
  COPD 2 (4.7) 3 (3.6)
  Cerebrovascular disease 1 (2.3) 1 (1.2)
  Coronary heart disease 4 (9.3) 4 (4.8)
  Dyspilidemia 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2)
Characteristics of admitting hospital**
 Number of beds   
  ≤200 4 (9.3) 8 (9.5)
  201-300 5 (11.6) 31 (36.9)
  >300 32 (74.4) 45 (53.6)
 Non-teaching facilities 37 (86.0) 78 (92.9)
Receipt during pre-admission period of
 Antipsychotics   
  Atypicals 40 (93.0) 65 (77.4)
  Others 17 (39.5) 12 (14.3)
  All of the above 41 (95.3) 66 (78.6)
 All other psychotropic medications 33 (76.7) 78 (92.9)
 Total costs, $   
Mean (SD) total pre-admission costs, $ 13,696 (9,517) 13,747 (11,236)
  1. *Unless otherwise indicated, all values are number of patients (%).
  2. HMO: Health-maintenance organization; POS: Point of service; PPO: Preferred-provider organization; PTSD: Post-traumatic stress disorder; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.