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Table 2 Frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in incident methylphenidate users and controls in 2005 to 2006

From: Comorbidities in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate: a database study

  Males Females
Diagnostic Group (ICD-10-German Modification Codes) Incident users Controls P-value Incident users Controls P-value
  (N=13,460)%1 (N=978,790)%1   (N=3,837)%1 (N=1,000,300)%1  
Mental and behavioural disorders (F10-F99) 2 82.52 21.53 <0.01 82.28 18.64 <0.01
Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-F19) 0.81 0.30 <0.01 1.15 0.34 <0.01
Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-F29) 0.35 0.06 <0.01 0.47 0.07 <0.01
Mood [affective] disorders (F30-F39) 3.87 0.48 <0.01 5.40 0.69 <0.01
  Bipolar affective disorder (F31) 0.01 0.003 0.03 0.08 0.01 <0.01
  Depression (F32, F33) 2.54 0.33 <0.01 3.62 0.55 <0.01
Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F48) 19.81 3.58 <0.01 25.70 4.88 <0.01
  Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1) 0.57 0.18 <0.01 1.09 0.23 <0.01
Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (F50–F59) 5.04 1.18 <0.01 6.18 1.49 <0.01
Disorders of adult personality and behaviour (F60-F69) 10.36 1.11 <0.01 9.59 1.11 <0.01
Mental retardation (F70-F79) 3.80 0.58 <0.01 5.08 0.44 <0.01
Disorders of psychological development (F80-F89) 52.25 13.87 <0.01 48.45 9.90 <0.01
Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence2 (F91-F98) 55.94 6.03 <0.01 54.29 4.38 <0.01
  Conduct disorder (F91) 14.78 1.15 <0.01 11.02 0.81 <0.01
  Oppositional defiant disorder (F91.3) 3.65 0.18 <0.01 3.08 0.11 <0.01
Unspecified mental disorder (F99) 1.11 0.20 <0.01 1.59 0.26 <0.01
  1. 1 Percentages add up to more than 100% since insurees could have more than one type of comorbidity.
  2. 2 Codes for hyperkinetic disorders (F90.x) were excluded from this group.
  3. 3 The percentage of male controls with a respective diagnosis was 0.004 (N=41).