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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients according to relapse status and univariate Cox proportional-hazards models: Crude Hazard Ratio (HR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI)

From: Quality of life is predictive of relapse in schizophrenia

  Relapse     
  Yes (N = 540) No (N = 484)     
  M (SD)1 M (SD) p-value Crude HR 95% CI p-value
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age 40.3 (10.1) 42. 0 (11.6) p = 0.013 0.99 (0.98;0.99) p = 0.004
Gender (Male), N (%)2 62.1 61.2 p = 0.773 0.97 (0.82;1.16) p = 0.762
Living alone, N (%) 33.5 34.5 p = 0.740 0.97 (0.81;1.16) p = 0.754
Unemployed, N (%) 56.9 35.7 P = 0.240 0.79 (0.53;1.15) p = 0.237
Severity of symptoms: PANSS3       
Positive PANSS score 12.7 (5.7) 11.7 (5.1) p = 0.003 1.03 (1.01;1.04) p = 0.001
Negative PANSS score 16.1 (7.3) 14.6 (7.5) p = 0.002 1.02 (1.01;1.03) p = 0.001
General Psychopathology PANSS score 29.7 (10.2) 27.7 (10.1) P = 0.001 1.02 (1.01;1.02) p < 0.001
Functioning
GAF4 48.5 (15.6) 55.0 (15.9) p < 0.001 0.98 (0.98;0.99) p < 0.001
Side Effects
BAS5 1.3 (3.0) 1.1 (2.7) p = 0.192 1.02 (0.99;1.04) p = 0.147
AIMS6 3.0 (6.9) 2.5 (5.6) p = 0.228 1.01 (0.99;1.02) p = 0.328
SAS7 3.5 (8.2) 3.5 (7.7) p = 0.963 1.00 (0.99;1.011) p = 0.990
Medication
Second-generation antipsychotics (Yes), N (%) 45.6 38.9 p = 0.034 1.26 (1.06;1.49) p = 0.009
Attitude towards medication: ROMI8
ROMI compliance score 10.8 (3.5) 11.1 (3.1) p = 0.223 0.97 (0.95;0.99) p = 0.035
Quality of life
SF36 - Physical Composite Score * 47.2 (9.8) 49.1 (8.7) p = 0.001 0.83 (0.76;0.91) p < 0.001
SF36 - Mental Composite Score ** 40.3 (11.8) 43.7 (11.0) p < 0.001 0.84 (0.78;0.91) p < 0.001
QoLI - OLS score*** 4.7 (0.9) 4.8 (0.8) p = 0.006 0.86 (0.78;0.95) p = 0.003
  1. 1 Mean (Standard Deviation); 2 Effective (Percentage); 3 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; 4Global Assessment Functioning; 5Barnes Akathisia score; 6Abnormal Involuntary Movement Score; 7Simpson-Angus score; 8Rating of Medication Influences Scale.
  2. * HR for the SF36 - Physical Composite Score should be interpreted this way, “an increase of 10 points on the Physical Composite Score multiplied by 0.83 the instantaneous risk of relapse at 24 months”;
  3. ** HR for the SF36 - Mental Composite Score should be interpreted this way, “an increase of 10 points on the Mental Composite Score multiplied by 0.84 the instantaneous risk of relapse at 24 months”;
  4. *** HR for the QoLI - OLS score should be interpreted this way, “an increase of 1 point on the QoLI score multiplied by 0.86 the instantaneous risk of relapse at 24 months”.