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Table 2 Conditional risk of DSM-IV/CIDI PTSD by PTE type, mean duration and relative PTSD burden associated with PTEs in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (n = 4315)

From: Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

Event type Conditional PTSD riska SE Number of lifetime to date PTSD episodesb SE Mean PTSD Duration (Months)c SE % relative PTSD burdend SE
War events 2.9 2.80 0.5 0.52 70.7 10.77 8.1 7.53
 Combat 2.3 2.19 0.1 0.08 60.0 0.00 0.8 0.89
 Relief worker 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Civilian in war zone 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Civilian in terror 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Refugee 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Purposely injured, tortured, or killed someone 32.9 28.73 0.5 0.18 72.0 0.00 4.3 1.68
Physical violence 1.8 0.65 1.2 0.42 27.5 16.14 6.9 5.92
 Beaten up by caregiver 1.2 0.71 0.1 0.09 14.5 6.12 0.5 0.38
 Beaten up by partner 5.4 2.69 0.4 0.22 59.0 44.20 5.3 5.34
 Beaten up by someone else 0.9 0.82 0.2 0.15 2.0 0.00 0.10 0.12
 Mugged or threatened with a weapon 1.7 0.98 0.4 0.26 11.1 6.06 1.1 0.84
 Kidnapped
Sexual violence 2.6 1.70 0.4 0.24 15.2 12.39 1.2 1.21
 Raped 13.4 8.36 0.4 0.24 15.2 9.59 1.2 1.21
 Sexually assaulted 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Stalked 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
Accidents 3.3 1.23 2.1 0.78 39.1 17.23 17.2 10.55
 Toxic chemical exposure 0.0 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Automobile accident 5.5 3.57 0.9 0.60 33.7 14.88 6.3 4.39
 Other life threatening accident 9.6 5.31 0.8 0.40 20.1 9.91 3.2 2.00
 Natural disaster 0.7 0.73 0.0 0.02 7.0 0.00 0.1 0.03
 Man-made disaster 0.5 0.65 0.0 0.06 72.0 0.00 0.3 0.89
 Life-threatening illness 1.8 0.87 0.4 0.19 91.8 55.35 7.3 6.01
Unexpected death of loved one 3.3 1.32 2.0 0.84 27.5 8.10 11.8 7.83
Network events 1.4 0.83 0.3 0.18 53.1 34.72 3.6 3.43
 Child with serious illness 1.9 1.36 0.2 0.15 68.8 21.45 3.0 3.26
 Traumatic event to loved one 0.1 0.11 0.0 0.01 24.0 0.00 0.0 0.05
 Accidentally caused serious injury or death 3.4 3.65 0.1 0.11 24.0 0.00 0.5 0.59
Witnessing 8.3 4.91 4.5 2.46 55.1 4.38 50.5 15.38
 Witnessed death/dead body, saw someone hurt 3.7 2.67 2.1 1.54 44.1 9.51 19.8 13.92
 Saw atrocities 31.5 18.34 2.4 1.37 61.6 1.42 30.7 10.82
Others 2.5 1.91 0.2 0.14 21.4 8.19 0.8 0.61
 Some other event 0.9 0.91 0.0 0.01 48.0 0.00 0.3 0.15
 Private event 1.2 0.13 4.1 3.77 1.4 1.28 0.5 0.48
Total with any event 3.5 1.91 11.2 6.29 42.3 12.27 100.0 0.00
  1. aConditional risk for PTSD varies significantly across broad PTE classes (χ7 = 134.2 p < .001) and even more across specific PTEs (χ17 = 356, p < .001). Some classes of events are not included in the comparison because their number of mean occurrences is equal to zero. bNumber of lifetime-to-date episodes of PTSD associated with this class of PTEs and individual PTE per 100 respondents. cMean duration of PTSD episode (or residual symptoms, in months) for episodes associated with PTE in this class (χ7 = 134.2, p < .001) and individual PTE types(χ11 = 416.1, p < .001). dPercent of all years (or months) with PTSD episode (or residual symptoms) in the population due to episodes associated with this class of events.