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Table 3 Associations of socio-demographic factors with lifetime PTSD in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (N = 4315)

From: Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

Variable Lifetime trauma exposure OR (OR range) Lifetime PTSD OR (OR range)
Among total sample Among those with events Among those with events, Controlling for events
Gender
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.03 (0.84-1.26) 1.24 (0.56-2.76) 0.53 (0.12-2.30) 0.84 (0.34-2.04)
Age
18 - 29 0.89 (0.64-1.25) 1.24(0.39-3.90) 0.76 (0.14-4.27) 1.70 (0.35-8.26)
30 - 44 1.04 (0.72-1.5) 1.62 (0.60-4.39) 0.59 (0.11-3.08) 0.83 (0.15-4.69)
45 - 59 1.22 (0.89-1.67) 1.69 (0.69-4.15) 0.51 (0.12-2.09 0.91 (0.25-3.36)
60+ 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Marital status
Married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Previously married 1.35 (0.85-2.14) 2.71 (1.16-6.35)* 0.36 (0.09-1.36) 0.47 (0.10-2.28)
Never married 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 0.74 (0.33-1.66) 0.80 (0.30-2.14) 0.66 (0.20-2.16)
Education level
Low 0.59 (0.38-0.94) 0.47 (0.18-1.23) 0.71 (0.10-4.92) 0.68 (0.10-4.92)
Low-average 0.72 (0.48-1.06) 0.70 (0.38-1.26) 3.16 (0.66-15.19) 1.92 (0.65-5.66)
High-average 0.85 (0.65-1.12) 0.55 (0.29-1.06) 0.76 (0.22-2.64) 0.31 (0.08-1.23)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Employment
Employed 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Homemaker 0.65 (0.49-0.86)* 1.00 (0.40-2.52) 1.15 (0.29-4.58) 0.92 (0.26-3.24)
Retired 0.87 (0.54-1.39) 2.33 (0.89-6.09) 11.97 (4.00-35.82)* 9.18 (2.62-32.20)*
Other 0.86 (0.67-1.10) 1.14 (0.70-1.87) 1.23 (0.56-2.72) 1.06 (0.50-2.24)
Race
White 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black 1.32 (0.81-2.16) 0.70 (0.29-1.68) 0.36 (0.10-1.28) 0.60 (0.23-1.61)
Colored 0.73 (0.42-1.25) 0.90 (0.50-1.62) 0.76 (0.14-4.01) 0.79 (0.21-3.06)
Indian 1.35 (0.69-2.62) 0.07 (0.01-0.57)* 0.01 (0.00-0.09)* 0.02 (0.00-0.19)*
Other 1.17 (0.51-2.71) 0.95 (0.22-4.09) 0.61 (0.04-9.16) 1.23 (0.18-8.41)
PTE classes
War events - - - 2.40 (0.32-18.06)
Physical violence - - - 0.68 (0.23-2.00)
Sexual violence - - - 0.74 (0.08-7.32)
Accident - - - 1.43 (0.31-6.55)
Death - - - 1.00
Network events - - - 0.38 (0.06-2.32)
Witnessing - - - 3.56 (0.53-24.03)
Other or private - - - 0.74 (0.09-6.40)
Count of prior PTEs
Prior war events - - - 0.58 (0.29-1.15)
Prior physical violence - - - 1.33 (0.73-2.43)
Prior sexual violence - - - 1.56 (0.91-2.69)
Prior accidents - - - 0.95 (0.73-1.23)
Prior deaths - - - 1.53 (1.16-2.03)
Prior network events - - - 1.10 (0.77-1.57)
Prior witnessing - - - 1.09 (0.93-1.28)
Prior other events - - - 0.14 (0.01-2.92)
  1. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05); OR Odds Ratio.