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Table 1 Overview of studies related to neuropsychological differences in schizophrenia or depression

From: Neuropsychological functioning in inpatients with major depression or schizophrenia


Franke et al. (1993)[6]

Albus et al. (1996)[4]

Mitrushina et al. (1996)[7]

Verdoux and Liraud (2000)[8]

Egeland et al. (2003)[9]

Reichenberg et al. (2008)[10]


30 patients with schizophrenia (S) 15 unipolar non-psychotic patients (D) 30 control persons (Cont)

27 patients with schizophrenia (S) 10 depressed patients (D), 17 patients with bipolar disorder (B) = 27 patients with affective disorder, 27 control persons (Cont). All patients were first episode.

25 depressed patients. (D), 17 patients with mania (M), 21 patients with schizophrenia (S), 18 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), 22 patients with other psychosis (P) All patients had psychotic symptoms.

20 patients with schizophrenia (S), 29 patients with other psychosis (P), 33 patients with bipolar disorder (B), 19 patiens with Major Depression (D)

53 patients with schizophrenia (S), 50 patients with recurrent depression (D), 50 healthy controls (Cont)

94 patients with schizophrenia (S), 15 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), 78 patients with bipolar disorder (B), 48 patients with major depression (D)

Neuropsychological Test Battery

Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WCST), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT A and B), Digit Span Test (DST)

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), WCST, Verbal fluency Test, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R), California Verbal Learning Test, TMT, Stroop Test, Continous Performance Test, Span of Apprehension Test

Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE; Kiernan et al. 1987)

BEM-84 (Memory), WCST, STROOP

Continous Performance Test, dichotomic listening, STROOP, 2 Visual-motor coordination speed

WAIS-R, WMS-R, STROOP, TMT, Finger Tapping Test, Facial Recognition Test, Letter Fluency and Sentence Repetition Test


WCST, TMT, VFT: S,D < Cont TMT B: S < D

Visual-motor coordination: S < A A without psychotic symptoms = Cont A with psychotic symptoms = S

Memory, abstract thinking: distinct deficits in patients with schizophrenia (S < D)

Global memory functioning: S < D; verbal memory: S < P, B, D; WCST, STROOP: no differences

Speed and selective attention: S < Cont Speed: D < Cont Vigilance: D < S

S < SA < B < D

  1. < = “worse than”.
  2. S Schizophrenia, D Major depression, Cont healthy control group, B bipolar disorder, P other psychosis, AffectD affective disorder.