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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of women survivors of human trafficking with and without mental disorder at an average of 6 months post-return: univariable analyses (n=120)*

From: Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study

   Total (n=120) No mental disorder (n=55) Mental disorder(n=65) p value
   N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Pre trafficking factors
Education status General obligatory or less (age 6–15 years) 89 (74.2) 32 (58.2) 57 (87.7) <.0.001
Upper secondary or higher (age 16+ years) 31 (25.8) 23 (41.8) 8 (12.3)
Employment status Unemployed 82 (68.3) 37 (67.3) 45 (69.2) 0.009
Unqualified work 25 (20.8) 7 (12.7) 18 (27.7)
Student 7 (5.8) 6 (10.9) 1 (1.5)
Qualified work 6 (5.0) 5 (9.1) 1 (1.5)
Living situation Alone 50 (41.2) 20 (36.4) 30 (46.2) 0.187
With parents 21 (17.5) 7 (12.7) 14 (21.5)
With child(ren) only 25 (20.8) 14 (25.5) 11 (16.9)
With partner 13 (10.8) 6 (10.9) 7 (10.8)
Other 11 (9.2) 8 (14.6) 3 (4.6)
Residence Rural 81 (67.5) 32 (58.2) 49 (75.4) 0.045
Urban 39 (32.5) 23 (41.8) 16 (24.6)
Had a confidante No 69 (57.5) 34 (61.8) 35 (53.9) 0.379
Yes 51 (42.5) 21 (38.2) 30 (40.1)
Childhood emotional abuse** No 34 (28.3) 23 (41.8) 11 (16.9) 0.003
Yes 86 (71.7) 32 (58.2) 54 (83.1)
Childhood physical abuse* * No 41 (34.2) 28 (50.9) 13 (20.0) <0.001
Yes 79 (65.8) 27 (49.1) 52 (80.0)
Childhood sexual abuse No 83 (69.2) 45 (81.8) 38 (58.5) 0.006
Yes 37 (30.8) 10 (18.2) 27 (41.5)
Trafficking characteristics
Destination country Turkey 46 (38.3) 25 (45.5) 21 (32.3) 0.286
Russia 34 (28.3) 15 (27.3) 19 (29.2)
Other 40 (33.3) 15 (27.3) 25 (38.5)
Type of exploitation Labour 23 (19.2) 12 (21.8) 11 (16.9) 0.497
Sexual 97 (80.8) 43 (78.2) 54 (83.1)
Duration of trafficking (months) Mean (SD, range) 9.6 (SD 5.6, range 2–31) 8.3 (SD 5.0, range 2–25) 10.7 (SD 6.0, range 2–31) 0.023
Post trafficking baseline mental disorder (within 2 days of return to Moldova)
Baseline diagnosis of mental disorder No 18 (15.0) 9 (16.4) 9 (13.9) 0.700
Yes 102 (85.0) 46 (83.6) 56 (86.1)
Post trafficking factors (6 months after return to Moldova)
Age (years) Mean (SD) 25.4 (6.0) 26.3 (6.5) 24.6 (5.4) 0.114
Marital status Single/widowed/ divorced 106 (88.3) 42 (76.4) 64 (98.5) <0.001
Married/ cohabiting 14 (11.7) 13 (23.6) 1 (1.5)
Has children No 58 (48.3) 25 (45.5) 33 (50.8) 0.562
Yes 62 (51.7) 30 (54.5) 32 (49.2)
Employment status Unemployed 44 (36.7) 10 (18.2) 34 (52.3) <0.001
Unqualified work 37 (30.8) 14 (25.5) 23 (35.4)
Student 25 (20.8) 18 (32.7) 7 (10.8)
Qualified work 14 (11.7) 13 (23.6) 1 (1.5)
Time since return to Moldova (months) Mean (SD, range) 5.9 (SD 3.2, range 2–12) 5.4 (SD 3.3, range 2–12) 6.3 (SD 3.3, range 2–12) 0.131
Number of unmet needs Mean (SD, range) 3.7 (SD 2.8, range 0–11) 1.6 (SD 1.7, range 0–8) 5.4 (SD 2.3, range 1–11) <0.001
Social support score Mean (SD, range) 19.9 (SD 5.5, range 9–30) 24.3 (SD 3.5, range 16–30) 16.1 (SD 3.7, range 9–30) <0.001
  1. * Categorical variables were tested using chi-squared tests. Fisher exact tests were used when cell counts were lower than 5, Continuous variables were analysed using logistic regression.
  2. ** Abuse prior to age 17 by a parent or other adult in the household.