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Table 2 Psychopathology of high (N = 65) and low humiliation (N = 121) groups and the total sample (N = 186)

From: Perceived humiliation during admission to a psychiatric emergency service and its relation to socio-demography and psychopathology

Variables High humiliation Low humiliation p-value Effect size* Total sample
(N = 65) (N = 121) (N = 186)
Admission GAF-scores, mean (SD)
  GAF-Function 35.8 (11.8) 41.4 (10.3) 0.003 0.52 41.4 (10.7)
  GAF-Symptoms 38.1 (11.2) 43.1 (10.1) 0.003 0.48 39.5 (11.1)
Sucidal at admission, N (%) 20 (31) 68 (56) 0.001 0.51 88 (47)
Violence, N (%)   0.001 0.52  
  Mild 24 (37) 76 (63)    100 (54)
  Severe 41 (63) 45 (37)    86 (46)
BPRS scores, mean (SD)
  Total 61.3 (16.1) 51.7 (12.4) <0.001 0.70 55.1 (14.5)
  Thinking disturbance 8.6 (4.1) 5.8 (3.4) <0.001 0.77 6.8 (3.9)
  Anxiety/depression 8.8 (4.3) 10.4 (3.7) 0.01 0.41 9.8 (4.0)
  Hostility/suspicipouness 8.7 (3.8) 5.4 (3.2) <0.001 0.96 6.6 (3.7)
  Activation# 8.0 (4.2) 6.5 (3.3) 0.03 0.41 7.0 (3.7)
HADS scores, mean (SD)
  Depression# 8.9 (4.8) 9.1 (4.6) 0.95   9.0 (4.7)
  Anxiety 12.4 (5.1) 11.8 (5.0) 0.29   12.0 (5.0)
NPI-29 scores, mean (SD)
  Total# 9.7 (6.2) 6.4 (4.2) <0.001 0.66 7.5 (5.2)
  Leadership/power (factor 1)# 2.8 (2.0) 2.0 (1.8) 0.003 0.43 2.3 (1.9)
  Exhibitionism (factor 2)# 2.1 (2.0) 1.3 (1.5) 0.023 0.47 1.6 (1.8)
  Superiority/Arrogance (factors 3)# 2.1 (1.7) 1.4 (1.2) 0.009 0.50 1.6 (1.4)
  Entitlement/Uniqueness (factor 4)# 2.7 (2.0) 1.8 (1.6) 0.001 0.51 2.1. (1.8
  1. # Indicate the use if non-parametric statistical tests due to skewed distributions. *Effect size is only given if p-value is significant and cannot be calculated for three-ways chi-square tests.