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Table 3 Bivarate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with high humiliation as dependent variable (low humiliation = reference)

From: Perceived humiliation during admission to a psychiatric emergency service and its relation to socio-demography and psychopathology

Independent variables Univariate Group multivariate*
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Level of education a     2.43 0.86 – 6.88 0.094
≥12 years (reference) 1.00      
<12 years 2.81 1.02 – 7.80 0.046    
Working status a     2.96 1.30 – 6.62 0.008#
In paid work (reference) 1.00      
Not in paid work 3.19 1.44 – 7.08 0.003    
Compulsory admission b 7.46 3.61 – 15.43 <0.001 5.63 2.54 – 12.53 <0.001
Diagnosis at discharge b
Non-psychotic (reference) 1.00      
Mood disorder 0.93 0.43 – 2.02 0.85 1.22 0.50 – 2.96 0.660
Schizophrenia 3.71 1.76 – 7.84 0.001 2.06 0.90 – 4.74 0.089
Duration of admission b
≤2 weeks (reference) 1.00      
3 – 4 weeks 2.27 1.29 – 5.51 0.008 2.04 0.91 – 4.54 0.082
5 – 28 weeks 4.52 2.00 – 10.22 <0.001 3.20 1.29 -7.94 0.012
GAF-scores
GAF-Function 0.96 0.93 – 0.98 0.003    
GAF-Symptoms 0.95 0.93 – 0.98 0.001    
Violence§
Mild (reference) 1.00      
Severe 2.89 1.55 – 5.39 0.001    
BPRS subscales
Total 1.05 1.03 – 1.07 <0.001    
Anxiety/Depressionc 0.90 0.83 – 0.97 0.009 0.87 0.77 – 0.99 0.036
Thinking disturbancec 1.21 1.11 – 1.32 <0.001 1.16 1.04 – 1.30 0.010
Hostility/Suspicion§ c 1.29 1.17 – 1.42 <0.001 1.29 1.14 – 1.45 <0.001
Activationc 1.11 1.02 – 1.21 0.011 0.87 0.77 – 0.99 0.036
NPI-29 scores
Total 1.13 1.06 – 1.21 <0.001    
Leadership (factor 1)d 1.28 1.09 – 1.51 0.003 1.28 1.09 – 1.51 0.003
Exhibitionism (factor 2)d 1.27 1.07 – 1.51 0.007 1.27 1.07 – 1.51 0.007
Superiority (factors 3) d 1.41 1.13 – 1.75 0.002 1.41 1.13 – 1.75 0.002
Entitlement (factor 4) d 1.36 1.14 – 1.63 0.001 1.36 1.14 – 1.63 0.001
   Final multivariate analysis
Not in paid work     3.13 1.21 – 8.10 0.019
Compulsory admission     4.95 2.18 – 11.23 <0.001
GAF-Function     1.01 0.97 – 1.04 0.746
BPRS Hostility     1.20 1.07 – 1.34 0.001
NPI-29 Superiority     1.13 0.86 – 1.48 0.385
NPI-29 Entitlement     1.23 0.99 – 1.53 0.013
  1. *For groups of variables as indicated: aEducation and work bAdmission and diagnosis cBPRS subscales dNPI-29 subscales # Fat types: Variables included in the final multivariate analysis. § Violence and BPRS Hostility/suspiciousness correlate rho = 0.60, and therefore only the latter variable entered the final multivariate analysis.