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Table 2 Presentation of high (HIP) and low (LIP) interpretation performer profiles with respect to higher cognition composite components and emotional processing items

From: Odor naming and interpretation performance in 881 schizophrenia subjects: association with clinical parameters

    Descriptive       LIP compared to HIP
SZ LIP HIP Effect p
      [95%CI] (Statistic)
Higher cognition composite components     
Reasoningc mean ± SD 20.8 ± 6.6 18.2 ± 6.7 21.5 ± 6.5 −2.61 3.6x10 -3
range (2–38) (2–34) (8–38) [−4.35, -0.86] (t164=−2.951a)
Executive functioningc median −56.5 −79.0 −47.0 −24.77 0.082
interquartile [−103.0, -36.0] [−139.0, -47.0] [−122.0, -34.0] [−52.69, 3.15] (t155=−1.753a)
range (−868– 40) (−680– -9) (−563– -10)   
Working memoryc mean ± SD 13.1 ± 3.9 11.7 ± 4.4 13.6 ± 3.9 −1.25 0.049
range (1–24) (4–22) (4–24) [−2.50, -0.00] (t158=−1.981a)
Processing speedc mean ± SD 38.4 ± 13.2 32.5 ± 13.7 39.3 ± 13.5 −4.52 0.011
range (4–88) (5–68) (6–71) [−7.99, -1.04] (t167=−2.566a)
Verbal memoryc mean ± SD 42.0 ± 12.6 37.3 ± 12.5 43.0 ± 14.0 −3.38 0.083
range (6–72) (11–62) (6–70) [−7.22, 0.45] (t161=−1.742a)
Divided attentionc median −725 −764 −714 4.14 0.84
interquartile [−806, -659] [−833, -651] [−797, -647] [−35.50, 43.78] (t158= 0.206a)
range (−1663– -355) (−1167– -448) (−1160– -416)   
Emotional processing items    
Blunted affect median 3 4 3   7.5x10 -3
(PANSS N1) interquartile [2,4] [3,5] [2,4] - (W=2947b)
  range (1–7) (1–7) (1–6)   
Emotional withdrawal median 3 3 3   0.029
(PANSS N2) interquartile [1,4] [1,4] [1,4] - (W=3119b)
  range (1–7) (1–7) (1–6)   
Poor rapport median 2 3 2   3.1 x10 -3
(PANSS N3) interquartile [1,3] [1,4] [1,3] - (W=2875b)
  range (1–7) (1–6) (1–5)   
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances are set in boldface (p≤0.0083 for components of higher cognition composite, p≤0.0167 for emotional processing items). All other p-values≤0.05 in italic. at-Statistic tdf with df degrees of freedom for estimation of difference in means (employing a linear model on Blom-transformed trait). bWilcoxon rank sum test. cAdjusted for age and PANSS negative. Reasoning ability was measured by LPS3, executive functioning is represented as difference of execution times between TMTA and TMTB, working memory was assessed by BZT, processing speed by ZST, verbal memory by VLMT and divided attention by negative execution time (−d3mdg) of TAP. In this table, and when building the cognition composite, all measures were presented such that larger values represent better cognitive performance. Abbreviations: SZ= Descriptive statistics for schizophrenia sample (N=881); HIP= High interpretation performers (N=88); LIP= Low interpretation performers (N=88); LPS3= Subtest 3 of the Leistungsprüfsystem, a German test covering Thurstone’s primary mental abilities; TMTA/B= Trail Making Test A and B; BZT=Letter Number Sequencing; ZST= Digit Symbol Coding; VLMT= Verbal Learning and Memory Test; TAP=Testbatterie für Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung, English translation: Test battery for attention. All neuropsychological measures are cited in Ribbe et al. 2010.